, for the medical condition, see end stage renal failure[[Image:ESRF mg 2251.jpg| joint research facility supported by 2 people situated in Grenoble, France. It has an annual budget of around 80 million euros, employs over 600 people and is host to more than 3500 visiting scientists each year.Research at the ESRF focuses, in large part, on the use of X-ray radiation in fields as diverse as protein crystallography, earth science, paleontology, materials science, chemistry and physics. Facilities such as the ESRF offer a flux, energy range and resolution unachievable with conventional radiation sources.The ESRF physical plant consists of two main buildings: the experiment hall, containing the 844 metre circumference ring and forty tangential beamlines; and a block of laboratories, preparation suites, and offices connected to the ring by a pedestrian bridge. The linear accelerator electron gun and smaller booster ring used to bring the beam to an operating energy of 6 GeV are constructed within the main ring. Until recently bicycles were provided for use indoors in the ring's circumferential corridor. Unfortunately they have been removed after some minor accidents. But even before this it was not possible to cycle continuously all the way around, since some of the beamlines exit the hall.The ESRF site forms part of the "Polygone Scientifique", lying at the confluence of the Drac and Isère rivers about 1.5 km from the centre of Grenoble. It is served by local bus and the Lyon airport coach, which stops at the Place de la Résistance just outside the site.The ESRF shares its site with several other institutions including the Institut Laue-Langevin and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory .The Centre national de la recherche scientifique has an institute just across the road. Wikipedia.
European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Date: 2016-10-12
A secure device for powering a plurality of inductive loads, each coupled to a dedicated converter, the device including a standby converter and, for each inductive load: a flyback diode connected to the inductive load; a circuit for detecting an anomaly of the current flowing through the inductive load; and a selection switch controlled by the detection circuit, adapted to decouple the inductive load from the specific converter and couple the inductive load to said standby converter.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2015 | Award Amount: 693.00K | Year: 2016
The PEARL project aims at advancing the technologies for manufacturing of high quality Periodically Bent Crystals (PBCr). The PBCr developed in the course of this project will be utilised for the construction of novel light sources of high-energy (h102 keV up to GeV range) monochromatic electromagnetic radiation by means of a Crystalline Undulator (CU) . The technological and experimental part of this project will be accompanied by the complimentary advanced theoretical research utilising modern theoretical, computational and modelling methods accomplished with high performance computing techniques. A broad interdisciplinary, international collaboration has been created in the frame of FP7 PIRSES-CUTE project, which was focused on initial experimental tests of the CU idea and the related theory, for review see . This project has been successfully completed in March 2015 and left the matter experimentally validated to a degree that is tantalising, requiring further experimentation. In particular CUTE elucidated the demand on manufacturing PBCrs of an exceptional lattice quality, their experimental characterisation and exposure against the high quality beams of ultra-relativistic electrons and positrons for the observation of the strong coherent effects in the photon emission process. PEARL will focus on solving the whole complex of the important technological, experimental and theoretical problems aiming to achieve the major breakthrough in this important research area. The PEARL international collaboration is extended with respect to CUTE and involves the new partners with the essential, necessary, complementary expertise and experimental facilities. The PEARL research programme is highly collaborative and requiring numerous exchange visits between the involved laboratories, joint workshops and conferences. Therefore, RISE type of project is the most suitable for strengthening of this very essential, ongoing, international collaborative research.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 11.76M | Year: 2015
NFFA-EUROPE will implement the first open-access research infrastructure as a platform supporting comprehensive projects for multidisciplinary research at the nanoscale extending form synthesis to nanocharacterization to theory and numerical simulation. The integration and the extension of scope of existing specialized infrastructures within an excellence network of knowledge and know-how will enable a large number of researchers from diverse disciplines to carry out advanced proposals impacting science and innovation. The full suite of key infrastructures for nanoscience will become, through the NFFA-EUROPE project, accessible to a broader community extended to research actors operating at different levels of the value chain, including SMEs and applied research, that are currently missing the benefits of these enabling technologies. NFFA-EUROPE sets out to offer an integrated, distributed infrastructure to perform comprehensive nanoscience and nanotechnology projects from synthesis and nanolithography (with nanofoundry installations) to advanced characterization and theoretical modellization/numerical simulation (with experimental installations including analytical large scale facilities and a distributed theoretical installation including high-performance computing). Coordinated access will be given to complementary facilities co-located in nine well distributed main sites in Europe, ensuring the optimal match between user proposal and technical offer. The research activity of the Consortium will realize innovative solutions on key bottlenecks of nanoscience research, therefore upgrading the facility quality and uniqueness.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-4-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 7.47M | Year: 2015
Advanced optical laser light sources and accelerator-based X-ray sources, as well as their technologies, scientific applications, and user communities, have developed independently over more than five decades. Driven by the developments at each optical laser and free-electron laser research infrastructures (RIs) in recent years, the gap between the optical laser and accelerator-driven light sources has diminished significantly. Both communities operate, implement, or plan advanced laser light source RIs, combining high-power optical and high-brightness X-ray light sources operated as dedicated user facilities. Operational and technical problems of these RIs have become very similar, if not identical. In specific cases, joint projects by the two communities have been initiated, but a closer and more structured collaboration of the corresponding communities and light sources is urgently required and shall be developed through this project. The present proposal for a European Cluster of Advanced Laser Light Sources (EUCALL) is the first attempt to create an all-embracing consortium of all (optical and X-ray) advanced laser light source RIs in Europe. Besides addressing the most urgent technical challenges, EUCALL will develop and implement cross-cutting services for photon-oriented ESFRI projects, will optimize the use of advanced laser light sources in Europe by efficient cross-community resource management, will enhance interoperability of the two types of light sources, will ensure global competitiveness, and will stimulate and support common long-term strategies and research policies for the application of laser-like short-wavelength radiation in science and innovation. The EUCALL consortium includes the three ESFRI projects ELI, European XFEL, and ESRF(up), several national RIs, and the LASERLAB-EUROPE and FELs OF EUROPE networks as representatives for the nationally operated optical laser and free-electron laser RIs.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.00M | Year: 2015
Structural biology provides insight into the molecular architecture of cells up to atomic resolution, revealing the biological mechanisms that are fundamental to life. It is thus key to many innovations in chemistry, biotechnology and medicine such as engineered enzymes, new potent drugs, innovative vaccines and novel biomaterials. iNEXT (infrastructure for NMR, EM and X-rays for Translational research) will provide high-end structural biology instrumentation and expertise, facilitating expert and non-expert European users to translate their fundamental research into biomedical and biotechnological applications. iNEXT brings together leading European structural biology facilities under one interdisciplinary organizational umbrella and includes synchrotron sites for X-rays, NMR centers with ultra-high field instruments, and, for the first time, advanced electron microscopy and light imaging facilities. Together with key partners in biological and biomedical institutions, partners focusing on training and dissemination activities, and ESFRI projects (Instruct, Euro-BioImaging, EU-OPENSCREEN and future neutron-provider ESS), iNEXT forms an inclusive European network of world class. iNEXT joint research projects (fragment screening for drug development, membrane protein structure, and multimodal cellular imaging) and networking, training and transnational access activities will be important for SMEs, established industries and academics alike. In particular, iNEXT will provide novel access modes to attract new and non-expert users, which are often hindered from engaging in structural biology projects through lack of instrumentation and expertise: a Structural Audit procedure, whereby a sample is assessed for its suitability for structural studies; Enhanced Project Support, allowing users to get expert help in an iNEXT facility; and High-End Data Collection, enabling experienced users to take full benefit of the iNEXT state-of-the-art equipment.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRASUPP-01-2016 | Award Amount: 2.10M | Year: 2017
The OPEN SESAME project will ensure optimal exploitation of the Synchrotron light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) light source. With this aim, OPEN SESAME has three key objectives: 1. To train SESAME staff in the storage ring and beamline instrumentation technology, research techniques and administration for optimal use of a modern light source facility. 2. To build-up human capacity in Middle East researchers to optimally exploit SESAMEs infrastructure. 3. To train SESAME staff and its user community in public outreach and corporate communications, and to support SESAME and its stakeholders in building awareness and demonstrating its socio-economic impact to assure longer term exploitation. Each objective is tackled by a work package. Firstly, SESAME staff training is addressed by 65 staff exchanges planned between SESAME and the European partners. Secondly, capacity-building is targeted by five training schools, a short-term fellowship programme and an industrial workshop. Finally, a proactive communications strategy will be created, including an educational roadshow to all of the SESAME Members, and a training programme in research infrastructure administration and their economic role and impact for young science managers of SESAME Member stakeholders. The project directly addresses the INFRASUPP-2016-2017 call to support SESAME. OPEN SESAME is well aligned to the broader scope of the work programme with activities that will have a lasting impact on a reinforced European Research Area, and particularly in strengthening international cooperation for research infrastructures with a key Region located close to Europe. The project has been developed closely with SESAME, its Directors and international Training Advisory Committee. The OPEN SESAME consortium is composed of ten European institutes (six light sources, The Cyprus Institute, CERN, CNRS and Instruct) along with SESAME itself.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 2.33M | Year: 2015
This cross-disciplinary Marie Curie Innovative Training Network builds upon the transformative opportunities created by existing X-ray sources and new sources soon to be operative in Europe. These opportunities include using ultrafast X-ray sources to extract time-dependent structural information from proteins; and revolutionary possibilities created by X-ray Free Electron Laser radiation for an entirely new regime of pre-damage serial femtosecond crystallography. No lag should exist between building new sources and training the next generation of scientists well versed in using these facilities. Our research training will yield new scientific insights on fundamental properties of protein structure and dynamics: one of the most challenging problems in structural biology; and technological advancements in diverse fields from pharmacology to nanotechnology. X-probe creates close interdisciplinary collaboration between structural biologists, physical chemists, beamline engineers, software developers, and industrial partners. The rapidly changing state-of-the-art demands that young researchers are trained to meet these new experimental, technical and analysis challenges at the forefront of structural biology and photochemistry. X-probes interdisciplinary and intersectorial training network incorporates four leading European X-ray facilities (ESRF, MAXIV Laboratory, European XFEL, SwissFEL); three academic laboratories at the forefront developing X-ray tools to probe protein dynamics; and both large and small industrial partners. Four principal scientists in X-probe are female. X-probe builds close cooperation between traditionally separate fields of research at the very cutting edge of structural biology and creates a visionary training network that would not be possible within any of the individual partner states.
Bruno P.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013
I present arguments indicating the impossibility of spontaneously rotating "quantum time crystals," as recently proposed by Frank Wilczek. In particular, I prove a "no-go theorem," rigorously ruling out the possibility of spontaneous ground-state (or thermal equilibrium) rotation for a broad class of systems. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-01-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 3.73M | Year: 2017
Two-dimensional materials (2DMs) such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, silicene and others, are currently amongst the most intensively studied classes of materials that hold great promise for future applications in many technological areas. However, the main hurdle against practical utilization of 2DMs is the lack of effective mass production techniques to satisfy the growing qualitative and quantitative demands for scientific and technological applications. The current state-of-the-art synthesis method of 2DMs involves the dissociative adsorption of gas-phase precursors on a solid catalyst. This process is slow by nature, inefficient, and environmentally unfriendly. Our analysis and recent experimental evidence suggest that using liquid metal catalysts (LMCats) instead of solid ones bears the prospect of a continuous production of 2DMs with unprecedented quality and production speed. However, the current knowledge about the catalytic properties of LMCats is extremely poor, as they had no technological significance in the past. In fact, there exist no well-established experimental facilities, nor theoretical frameworks to study the ongoing chemical reactions on a molten surface at elevated temperatures and under a reactive gas atmosphere. Our aim is to establish a central lab under supervision/collaboration of several scientific/engineering teams across Europe to develop an instrumentation/methodology capable of studying the ongoing chemical reactions on the molten catalyst, with the goal to open two new lines of research, namely in situ investigations on the catalytic activity of LMCats in general, and unravelling the growth mechanisms of 2DMs on LMCat surfaces in specific. The gained knowledge will be used to establish the first efficient mass production method for 2DMs using the new LMCat technology. This will open up the possibility of exploiting the unique properties of 2DMs on an industrial scale and in every day devices.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-01-2014 | Award Amount: 4.44M | Year: 2015
The key to the efficient transmission and conversion of low-carbon electrical energy is the improvement of power electronic devices. Diamond is considered to be the ultimate wide bandgap semiconductor material for applications in high power electronics due to its exceptional thermal and electronic properties. Two recent developments - the emergence of commercially available electronic grade single crystals and a scientific breakthrough in creating a MOS channel in diamond technology, have now opened new opportunities for the fabrication and commercialisation of diamond power transistors. These will result in substantial improvements in the performance of power electronic systems by offering higher blocking voltages, improved efficiency and reliability, as well as reduced thermal requirements thus opening the door to more efficient green electronic systems. These improvements are expected to increase the efficiency of power converters by a factor of 4, yielding a 75% reduction in losses. In this context, the objective of GreenDiamond is to fabricate a 10kV transistor in a high power package, followed by a high voltage AC/DC converter based on such devices. To meet GreenDiamonds challenging goals, the consortium gathers experts on power device design, diamond growth and characterization, packaging and testing as well as an innovative end-user. Most of the partners are also involved in SiC or GaN technology, allowing the project to benefit from their ample experience and achievements in wide bandgap semiconductors. As far as diamond transistor structure is concerned, unlike GaN and SiC, Europe still has a significant scientific and technological advantage over non-EU competitors. It is therefore extremely important to maintain the competitive edge that will lead the development of truly green electronics in the near to medium term future.