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Froehlich A.,European Space Policy Institute ESPI
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2013

Since last IAC in Naples the European space sector has experienced important events like the 234th ESA-council meeting held at ministerial level in Naples (Italy). In its course four resolutions were adopted on 20 and 21 November 2012. It is therefore interesting to analyze these resolutions to see in which way European space is developing. These resolutions are ranging from internal financial and organizational aspects/rules to "the role of ESA in sustaining competitiveness and growth in Europe". In addition the fourth resolution comprises a "political declaration towards the European space agency that best serves Europe". On the other side the European Commission issued in the same time frame on 14 November 2012 a document. In this communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament "Establishing appropriate relations between the EU and the European Space Agency" structural obstacles in the current EU/ESA relations are enumerated like the mismatch of financial rules, membership asymmetry, asymmetry in security and defence matters, absence of mechanisms for policy coordination and the missing political accountability for ESA due to the fact that ESA has no formal link with the European Parliament. A couple of ways for the future are proposed in the same. These two documents have to be highlighted as they show in an extensive way that the space sector in Europe and its rules is quite dynamic and developing. ©2013 by the International Astronautical Federation. All rights reserved. Source


Robinson J.,European Space Policy Institute ESPI
Space Policy | Year: 2011

Transparency and confidence-building measures (TCBMs) are a set of tools designed to display, predict and discipline states' behaviour with respect to maintaining the security of space. With intentional and unintentional threats to the peaceful use of space on the rise, there is a growing international consensus on the need for greater transparency in space-related activities as well as confidence-building measures to reduce the prospects of disruption to the ever-expanding role of space in our day-to-day lives. Terrestrial TCBMs can serve as a guide to understanding what political arrangements are possible in space, including certain precedents in the areas of arms control, non-proliferation and disarmament. At the same time, current and emerging challenges in space - including orbital space debris, risk of collisions, growing saturation of the radiofrequency spectrum, the crowding of satellites in geostationary (GEO) orbit and threat of purposeful disruption - need to be evaluated in the context of unilateral, bilateral, multilateral and private initiatives to increase space situational awareness and security. This paper describes and evaluates various prospective TCBMs alongside current proposals to advance safety and security in space, including the EU Draft Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities. It offers specific recommendations, arguing that Europe is uniquely qualified to negotiate a 21st century TCBM architecture thanks to its history of diplomacy and ability to identify common ground among disparate parties. This will only happen, however, with a more defined institutional design and the EU's emergence as a global civilian leader. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Froehlich A.,European Space Policy Institute ESPI
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2014

The Protocol to the Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment on Matters specific to Space Assets was adopted at the diplomatic conference in Berlin under the auspices of UNIDROIT in 2012. This protocol constitutes the first binding space related international treaty since more than 30 years, additionally for the first time ever in private law. The aim of this protocol is to make asset-based financing more accessible to an industry that is currently searching for innovative ways to obtain start-up capital for space-based services. However the focus of this paper will be on the nature of this so-called Berlin protocol. In this regard the Protocol has to be analyzed to see if it could be considered as a point of departure for further new mechanisms for the development of international agreements regarding space activities. The potential of this Protocol has to be explored in view of future other new tools for making international space law. In this context the ways of creating binding rules in other international areas (CTBTO, IAEO, OPCW) should have to be investigated in order to understand their mechanisms for setting law especially their systems for creating subsidiary legal norms which could possibly serve as other models for the space sector. © 2014, International Astronautical Federation, IAF. All rights reserved. Source


Plattard S.,European Space Policy Institute ESPI
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2014

Continuous availability of GNSS signals, essentially delivered for free to almost the entire world population, together with the phenomenal amount of associated apps that have diffused into the economics, trade, knowledge, culture and recreation fabrics have brought GNSS to the stage of a taken for granted resource. Indeed, the installed base of GNSS devices in 2013 was about 2.2 billion, relying primarily on GPS and GLONASS signals, projected to be 6 billion in 2020 with four global constellations and two regional systems bearing full operational capability at this date. Does such a spread of usage underlying the pervasiveness and dynamism of GNSS based applications qualify the primary resource of GNSS signals to become a World Public Good (WPG)? The paper will first review how and why banal use of GNSS has spread so fast, briefly describing the main sectors of the market, basically shared between Location Based Services (LBS) and road transportation, and massively dominated by smartphones and car devices. It will then analyze if the characteristics of a WPG defined as a non-rivalrous, non-excludable and universal resource, good or service, the exploitation or the preservation of which can justify a collective international action, are applicable to GNSS signals. Looking at the GNSS primary resource production, no particular international action is taken today and will likely continue that way until 2020 when only three countries and the EU will generate free GNSS signals destined for a global coverage, each of them preserving full control of its own resource. The dual-use of the national constellations, managed by their respective ministry of defense, does not favor right away a collective international action. Yet, an approach to a common governance would definitely make sense. The preservation of this resource benefits today of two ongoing international new collective actions, namely via: - The World Radio Communication Conference held under the purview of ITU, a specialized UN Agency, assigning, preserving and protecting the signal frequencies of an increasing scare resource, and, - The International Committee on GNSS (ICG), a platform created in the wake of UNISPACE III, where GNSS providers are building the required consensus to ensure compatibility among the different constellations and their interoperability. This platform is also used for exchanging views on signal availability, integrity, and interference issues, crucial for the quality of the resource. An analysis of the signals characteristics and their uses will indicate if the question is indeed worth asking. Source


Giannopapa C.,European Space Policy Institute ESPI
Space Policy | Year: 2012

The successful realisation of the flagship programmes, Galileo/EGNOS and GMES has been in doubt as a result of the current financial constraints. In providing an overview of the role of these two programmes in relation to implementing European policies - with sector-by-sector information on the ways they can help fulfil specific EU objectives - this paper attempts to demonstrate why and how they must be successfully operationalised. It therefore continues by analysing their political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal strengths and weaknesses and makes policy recommendations on this basis. Utilising these flagship programmes to carry through major European policies will be crucial for realising their great potential and achieving the Europe 2020 goals of the European Union. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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