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Grizzetti B.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Grizzetti B.,European Research Council Executive Agency | Bouraoui F.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Aloe A.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra
Global Change Biology | Year: 2012

During the last decades human activity has altered the natural cycle of nitrogen and phosphorus on a global scale, producing significant emissions to waters. In Europe, the amount of nutrients discharged from rivers to coastal waters as well as the effects of mitigation measures in place are known only partially, with no consistent temporal and spatial cover. In this study, we quantify the loads and concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus discharged in the European seas over the period 1985-2005, and we discuss their impact on coastal ecosystems. To support our analysis, a catchment database covering the whole of Europe was developed together with data layers of nutrients diffuse and point sources, and the statistical model green was used to estimate the annual loads of nitrogen and phosphorus discharged in all European seas. The results of this study show that during the last 20 years, Europe has discharged 4.1-4.8 Tg yr -1 of nitrogen and 0.2-0.3 Tg yr -1 of phosphorus to its coastal waters. We show that beside the North Sea and part of the Baltic Sea, annual nutrient exports have not changed significantly, in spite of the implementation of measures to reduce nutrient sources, and that the N P ratio has increased steadily, especially in the North, Mediterranean and Atlantic seas. The response of river basins to changes in inputs was not linear, but influenced by climatic variations and nutrients previously accumulated in soils and aquifers. An analysis of the effects of European environmental policies shows that measures to reduce phosphorus were more successful that those tackling nitrogen and that policies aimed at point sources were more effective or more effectively implemented than those controlling pollution from diffuse sources. The increase of the N P ratio could fuel eutrophication in N-limited coastal ecosystems, reducing biodiversity and the ecosystem's resilience to future additional anthropogenic stress, such as climate change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Herrero-Jauregui C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Fernandez C.,Convenio Embrapa CIRAD | Garcia-Fernandez C.,European Research Council Executive Agency | Sist P.L.J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Casado M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Plant Ecology | Year: 2011

In the present study, we describe the temporal and spatial variability in recruitment, growth, and mortality rates of seedlings and saplings of two low-density neotropical tree species, Dipteryx odorata and Copaifera reticulata in Eastern Amazonia, Brazil. As both species have important timber and non-timber uses, for each species we compare regeneration parameters among different management scenarios (sites used for timber logging, non-timber product extraction, and undisturbed forests). Results suggest that both species share similar natural regeneration characteristics. These include temporally and spatially asynchronous germination, existence of individuals that have more abundant and frequent fruit production than the average of the population and a positive influence of the mother tree crown on seedling and sapling density. The management activities analyzed did not influence the regeneration parameters of both species, which suggests that timber logging the way it was performed and current rates of D. odorata seed gathering and C. reticulata tapping at the study site are not sufficiently intense to threaten species population. However, some species characteristics, such as their reproductive strategies, light-demanding syndromes, low-dispersal ranges, and high-mortality rates of seedlings make both species vulnerable to exploitation. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


News Article | March 1, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Reston, Va. - In the featured article of the March 2017 issue of "The Journal of Nuclear Medicine," researchers demonstrate that a new positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, gallium-68 (Ga-68)-pentixafor, can quickly and non-invasively identify life-threatening atherosclerotic plaques. The tracer binds to the CXCR4 receptor on inflammatory cells present in atherosclerotic plaques--making it possible to find and treat atherosclerosis early. Atherosclerosis represents the main cause of heart attack and stroke. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, every year about 735,000 Americans have a heart attack and 800,000 have a stroke. Stroke kills more than 130,00 Americans a year, and about 610,000 die from cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis develops over decades with the progressive accumulation of lipids, inflammatory cells and connective tissue within the inner layer of arterial walls leading to a local thickening of the vascular wall called atherosclerotic plaque. These plaques can remain asymptomatic for years, but an inflammatory reaction can develop causing the plaques to rupture and stimulate clot formation. If a clot completely blocks an artery, no oxygen can reach the downstream tissue--resulting in the sudden development of heart attack or stroke. The challenge is to identify patients with these dangerous atherosclerotic plaques before a heart attack or stroke occurs. Currently, there is no clinically available non-invasive imaging technique specifically to detect inflammation. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET is being used but has important limitations. It is taken up by many cells other than inflammatory cells, including cardiac and brain cells. The strong signal present in the organs next to the arteries limits the precise analysis of the radiotracer uptake in atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, patients need to fast at least six hours before FDG injection to avoid interferences with blood sugar and muscular uptake of the tracer that impair image quality. "Ga-68-pentixafor binds more specifically to inflammatory cells than FDG and does not require the patient to fast for six hours before imaging," explains Fabien Hyafil, MD, PhD, of Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany, and Bichat University Hospital, Assistance Publique, Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France. In the study, the specific binding of Ga-68-pentixafor to inflammatory cells located in atherosclerotic plaques was first validated in an animal model. Seven atherosclerotic rabbits and five controls were imaged on a PET-MRI system after injection of the tracer. Resulting images clearly showed inflammation in plaques in the abdominal aorta and right carotid artery of the atherosclerotic rabbits. The researchers also confirmed with a small number of human patients that the radiotracer detected atherosclerotic plaques located in their carotid arteries. Hyafil emphasizes, "This new radiotracer will strongly facilitate the imaging of inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques with PET and hopefully support the early detection and treatment of atherosclerosis, thus preventing heart attack or stroke." Authors of the article "Imaging the cytokine receptor CXCR4 in atherosclerotic plaques with the radiotracer 68Ga-pentixafor for positron emission tomography" include Fabien Hyafil, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany, and Bichat University Hospital, Assistance Publique, Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; Jaroslav Pelisek, Iina Laitinen, Miriam Mohring; Michael Kallmayer, Johannes Fischer, Christine Baumgartner, and Hans-Henning Eckstein, of Klinikum Rechts der Isar; Margret Schottelius, Katja Steiger, Andreas Poschenrieder, Johannes Notni, and Hans-Jürgen Wester, Technische Universität München, Garching, Germany; Yvonne Döring and Emiel P.C. van der Vorst, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany; Christian Weber, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Technische Universität München, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, DZHK partner site Munich Heart Alliance, and Maastricht University, The Netherlands; Christoph Rischpler, Stephan G. Nekolla, and Markus Schwaiger, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Bichat University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Technische Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, DZHK partner site Munich Heart Alliance. This work was supported by the European Research Council Executive Agency through a Multimodal Molecular Imaging Advanced Research Grant (Grant number 294582), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 824-B5 and SFB 1123-A1), and Deutsches Zentrum für Herz-Kreislauf Forschung through a high-risk, high-volume grant. Please visit the SNMMI Media Center to view the PDF of the study, including images, and more information about molecular imaging and personalized medicine. To schedule an interview with the researchers, please contact Laurie Callahan at (703) 652-6773 or lcallahan@snmmi.org. Current and past issues of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine can be found online at http://jnm. . The Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) is an international scientific and medical organization dedicated to raising public awareness about nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, a vital element of today's medical practice that adds an additional dimension to diagnosis, changing the way common and devastating diseases are understood and treated and helping provide patients with the best health care possible. SNMMI's more than 17,000 members set the standard for molecular imaging and nuclear medicine practice by creating guidelines, sharing information through journals and meetings and leading advocacy on key issues that affect molecular imaging and therapy research and practice. For more information, visit http://www. .


Ferk A.,Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics | Ferk A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Leonhardt R.,Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics | Hess K.-U.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2014

It is widely accepted that cooling rate can strongly influence the intensity of the thermal remanent magnetization (TRM) acquired by rocks during cooling to ambient temperatures. If ignored, this effect might lead to underestimates or overestimates of the ancient magnetic field intensity. To date, however, the cooling rate dependence of TRM acquired by particles with different domain states has never been systematically analyzed from the theoretical or experimental point of view. In this study, we present measurements of the TRM of synthetic magnetites with well-defined grain sizes that were quenched with constant cooling rates of 0.05, 0.1, 1, 3, 10, and 15 K/min. While single domain (SD) and small pseudo-single domain (PSD) samples are found to show larger TRMs after slow cooling, the TRMs of larger PSD and multidomain (MD) magnetites are not affected by an increase or decrease of the cooling rate. Overall, our results suggest that only smallest magnetite grains acquire a cooling rate-dependent TRM. Therefore, cooling rate corrections of paleointensity determinations are only necessary for samples dominated by SD remanence carriers, while rocks dominated by PSD and MD carriers, such as basalts, which are most commonly used for paleointensity studies, do not require such corrections. ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Herrero-Bervera E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Krasa D.,European Research Council Executive Agency | Van Kranendonk M.J.,University of New South Wales
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors | Year: 2016

We have conducted a whole-rock type magnetic and absolute paleointensity determination of the red dacite of the Duffer Formation from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. The age of the dated rock unit is 3467 ± 5 Ma (95% confidence). Vector analyses results of the step-wise alternating field demagnetization (NRM up to 100 mT) and thermal demagnetization (from NRM up to 650 °C) yield three components of magnetization. Curie point determinations indicate three characteristic temperatures, one at 150–200 °C, a second one at ∼450 °C and a third one at ∼580 °C. Magnetic grain-size experiments were performed on small specimens with a variable field translation balance (VFTB). The coercivity of remanence (Hcr) suggests that the NRM is carried by low-coercivity grains that are associated with a magnetite fraction as is shown by the high-temperature component with blocking temperatures above 450 °C and up to at least 580 °C. The ratios of the hysteresis parameters plotted as a modified Day diagram show that most grain sizes are scattered within the Single Domain (SD) and the Superparamagnetic and Single Domain SP-SD domain ranges. In addition to the rock magnetic experiments we have performed absolute paleointensity experiments on the samples using the modified Thellier-Coe double heating method to determine the paleointensities. Partial-TRM (p-TRM) checks were performed systematically to document magnetomineralogical changes during heating. The temperature was incremented by steps of 50 °C between room temperature and 590 °C. The paleointensity determinations were obtained from the slope of Arai diagrams. Our paleointensity results indicate that the paleofield obtained was ∼6.4 ± 0.68 (N = 11) micro-Teslas with a Virtual Dipole Moment (VDM) of 1.51 ± 0.81 × 1022 Am2, from a medium-to high-temperature component ranging from 300 to 590 °C that has been interpreted to be the oldest magnetization yet recorded in paleomagnetic studies of the Duffer Formation. The absolute paleointensity is relatively low and we interpret this low-paleofield bias a result of a thermochemical remanent magnetization (TCRM) process that indicates a possible underestimate of the paleofield by a factor of four for the red dacite of the Duffer Fm. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Mugabushaka A.-M.,European Research Council Executive Agency | Papazoglou T.,European Research Council Executive Agency
CRIS 2012: e-Infrastructures for Research and Innovation - Linking Information Systems to Improve Scientific Knowledge Production - 11th International Conf. on Current Research Information Systems | Year: 2012

The European Research Council (ERC) was established in 2006 to support and strengthen excellent frontier research in Europe Since its beginning, it has received and evaluated over 32,000 proposals and funded more than 2,500 projects (as of June 2012) To assist in its effort to account for the added-value of its funding activities, the ERC is developing a CERIF-compliant-research information system It is conceived as an mte-grated platform which combines several tools to support the gathering, management and analysis of data on results of funded projects The distinctive features of the ERC system is that it makes extensive use of semantic web opportunities and machine learning techniques to minimize the burden on funded researchers In this paper, the rationale and main functionalities of the system are presented.


Krasa D.,European Research Council Executive Agency | Muxworthy A.R.,Imperial College London | Williams W.,University of Edinburgh
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2011

Palaeomagnetic observations are being used in increasingly sophisticated geological and geophysical interpretations. It is therefore important to test the theories behind palaeomagnetic recording by rocks, and this can only be achieved using samples containing precisely controlled magnetic mineralogy, grain size and interparticle spacing, the last of which controls the degree of magnetostatic interactions within the samples. Here we report the room- and low temperature magnetic behaviour of a set of samples produced by the nano-scale patterning technique electron beam lithography. The samples consist of 2-D arrays of near-identical magnetite dots of various sizes, geometries and spatial configurations, with dot sizes from ranging from near the single domain threshold of 74-333 nm. We have made a series of magnetic measurements including hysteresis, first-order-reversal curve measurements and remanence acquisition, many as a function of temperature between 20 and 300 K, to quantify the samples' behaviour to routine palaeomagnetic measurement procedures. We have also examined the behaviour of saturation isothermal remanences (SIRM) to cooling and warming cycling of the sample below room temperature. In addition, we investigated the samples' responses to alternating-field demagnetization of room temperature induced SIRM, anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and partial ARM. ARM was used as a non-heating analogue for natural thermoremanence. Given the 2-D spatial distribution of the samples, in all the experiments we conducted both in-plane and out-of-plane measurements. Generally, the samples were found to display pseudo-single-domain hysteresis characteristics, but were found to be reliable recorders of weak-field remanences like ARM. For the closely packed samples, the samples' magnetic response was highly dependent on measurement orientation. © 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2011 RAS.


Muxworthy A.R.,Imperial College London | Krasa D.,European Research Council Executive Agency | Williams W.,University of Edinburgh | Almeida T.P.,Imperial College London
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2014

A suite of near-identical magnetite nanodot samples produced by electron-beam lithography have been used to test the thermomagnetic recording fidelity of particles in the 74-333 nm size range; the grain size range most commonly found in rocks. In addition to controlled grain size, the samples had identical particle spacings, meaning that intergrain magnetostatic interactions could be controlled. Their magnetic hysteresis parameters were indicative of particles thought not to be ideal magnetic recorders; however, the samples were found to be excellent thermomagnetic recorders of the magnetic field direction. They were also found to be relatively good recorders of the field intensity in a standard paleointensity experiment. The samples' intensities were all within ∼15% of the expected answer and the mean of the samples within 3% of the actual field. These nonideal magnetic systems have been shown to be reliable records of the geomagnetic field in terms of both direction and intensity even though their magnetic hysteresis characteristics indicate less than ideal magnetic grains. Key Points Nonideal magnetic systems accurately record field direction Weak-field remanences more stable than strong-field remanences © 2014. The Authors.


Paloma S.G.Y.,European Commission | Ciaian P.,European Commission | Cristoiu A.,European Research Council Executive Agency | Sammeth F.,European Commission
Land Use Policy | Year: 2013

The objective of this paper is (i) to compare and discuss literature related to global and European outlooks in relation to the farming sector and rural areas and (ii) to provide an overview of policy modelling methodologies, especially but not only those used in assessing the impact of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). There is significant variation in terms of both the policies and external drivers that are taken into account in global and European outlooks, driven predominantly by the heterogeneity in focus of studies, the approach applied and/or external pressures. An increasing number of studies take on board the new CAP challenges. However, an area where improvements are needed is in the understanding of the sensitivity of policy effects to assumptions on external drivers. Two key modelling approaches applied for policy impact analysis include structural models and econometric models, with the former dominating the latter mainly due to its better adaptability to the needs of policy makers. However, with the CAP evolving towards ever more complex instruments, the relevance and predictive accuracy of structural models will possibly improve only as long as methodological and data issues are addressed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Baradad V.P.,European Research Council Executive Agency | Mugabushaka A.-M.,European Research Council Executive Agency
Proceedings of ISSI 2015 Istanbul: 15th International Society of Scientometrics and Informetrics Conference | Year: 2015

With the availability of vast collection of research articles on internet, textual analysis is an increasingly important technique in scientometric analysis. While the context in which it is used and the specific algorithms implemented may vary, typically any textual analysis exercise involves intensive pre-processing of input text which includes removing topically uninteresting terms (stop words). In this paper we argue that corpus specific stop words, which take into account the specificities of a collection of texts, improve textual analysis in scientometrics. We describe two relatively simple techniques to generate corpus-specific stop words; stop words lists following a Poisson distribution and keyword adjacency stop words lists. In a case study to extract keywords from scientific abstracts of research project funded by the European Research Council in the domain of Life sciences, we show that a combination of those techniques gives better recall values than standard stop words or any of the two techniques alone. The method we propose can be implemented to obtain stop words lists in an automatic way by using author provided keywords for a set of abstracts. The stop words lists generated can be updated easily by adding new texts to the training corpus.

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