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Firenze, Italy

European Patent office

Firenze, Italy
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Schroder G.,University of Basel | Schroder G.,European Patent office | Schuelein R.,University of Basel | Schuelein R.,University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2011

Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SS) mediate interbacterial conjugative DNA transfer and transkingdom protein transfer into eukaryotic host cells in bacterial pathogenesis. The sole bacterium known to naturally transfer DNA into eukaryotic host cells via a T4SS is the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Herewe demonstrate T4SS-mediated DNA transfer from a human bacterial pathogen into human cells. We show that the zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae can transfer a cryptic plasmid occurring in the bartonellae into the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 via its T4SS VirB/VirD4. DNA transfer into EA.hy926 cells was demonstrated by using a reporter derivative of this Bartonella-specific mobilizable plasmid generated by insertion of a eukaryotic egfpexpression cassette. Fusion of the C-terminal secretion signal of the endogenous VirB/VirD4 protein substrate BepD with the plasmidencoded DNA-transport protein Mob resulted in a 100-fold increased DNA transfer rate. Expression of the delivered egfp gene in EA.hy926 cells required cell division, suggesting that nuclear envelope breakdown may facilitate passive entry of the transferred ssDNA into the nucleus as prerequisite for complementary strand synthesis and transcription of the egfp gene. Addition of an eukaryotic neomycin phosphotransferase expression cassette to the reporter plasmid facilitated selection of stable transgenic EA.hy926 cell lines that display chromosomal integration of the transferred plasmid DNA. Our data suggest that T4SS-dependent DNA transfer into host cells may occur naturally during human infection with Bartonella and that these chronically infecting pathogens have potential for the engineering of in vivo gene-delivery vectors with applications in DNA vaccination and therapeutic gene therapy.

Riaz M.,University of Swabi | Zia-Ul-Haq M.,European Patent office | Jaafar H.Z.E.,University Putra Malaysia
Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy | Year: 2013

Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties. This medicinal herb contains various chemical constituents like saponins, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. It is famous in various communities worldwide for the treatment of various disorders of both humans and animals aliments. A number of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihepatotoxic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity have been ascribed to this plant. The plant is used to treat tuberculosis also, earache and bronchitis. In the present paper botanical and ethnomedicinal description, pharmacological profile and phytochemistry of this herb is being discussed. © 2013 Brazilian Society of Pharmacognosy.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: INNOSUP-3-2014 | Award Amount: 3.00M | Year: 2015

The main goal of the VIP4SME project is to sustainably enhance Intellectual Property (IP) support services to SMEs in order to allow them to understand the value of the intellectual capital they create and own, and to define strategies and management practices allowing them to better turn this capital into commercial values and competitiveness. This challenge will be jointly addressed by 31 National Intellectual Property Offices (NIPOs) from EU member states and countries participating in Horizon2020 together with 22 local partners working in close cooperation with NIPOs and which are mostly business support providers (BSPs) having easy access to their local SMEs. Synergies with other IP stakeholders and especially international organisations (EPO, OHIM, Benelux Office for Intellectual Property, WIPO) will be created. Training contents, tools and IP support services specifically designed and corresponding to identified needs of SMEs will be adapted or newly created, managed and made available to all project partners, in order to serve the improvement of IP support in all participating countries. Through an implementation plan, defining quantitative objectives for each country, and a project organisation supporting all participants in the practical implementation of new IP training and IP services, it will be ensured that at least 3,500 SMEs will be reached by high value IP support activities. Communication activities, including via the joint website, will be either targeted toward the diffusion of specific information such as cross-boarder IP information and other relevant information on the business use of IP, or toward promotion of the services and activities made available by the VIP4SME project and benefiting directly SMEs.

Bassi L.,European Patent office | Secchi C.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bonfe M.,University of Ferrara | Fantuzzi C.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2011

This paper describes a modeling methodology to support the design process of complex systems. The main challenge in modern industrial applications is the sheer volume of data involved in the design process. While using high-level abstraction is necessary to manage this data and analyze the system as a whole, designers need also to retain all the low-level information of the system, in order to be able to perform optimizations and modifications at later times. The solution proposed here is to use a hierarchy of models, each one describing the system at different levels of abstraction, and arrange them in such a way that it is possible to easily map each level onto the others. The topmost layer of the system description is expressed in System Modeling Language, a general-purpose modeling language based on Unified Modeling Language. © 2006 IEEE.

Nisar M.D.,TU Munich | Utschick W.,TU Munich | Hindelang T.,European Patent office
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2010

Two-dimensional minimum mean square error (MMSE) channel estimation for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems is known to perform better than the least squares, as well as the conventional 1-D MMSE estimation, owing to its ability of exploiting both, the time and the frequency correlations among the channel frequency response (CFR) coefficients. Its superior performance comes however at the price of increased requirementsthe knowledge of observation noise power and that of the channel frequency, as well as time correlation functions. In practical transmission scenarios, where channel correlation functions are not known or cannot be easily estimated, it is desirable to have an estimator that is robust to mismatches between the assumed and the actual channel correlation function. While such a robust estimator, for the case of an infinite number of observations, is well known for various uncertainty classes, not much attention has been paid to the practical case of a finite number of observations. We derive in this paper, the maximally robust (MR) 2-D channel estimator for the case of a finite number of pilot observations under some realistic constraints on the uncertainty class to which the 2-D channel correlation sequence belongs. We demonstrate that the correlation sequence associated with the MR estimator can be obtained by a simple semi-definite optimization procedure and is interestingly different from the well-known heuristic proposals. Simulation results establish the superiority of the proposed MR estimator over commonly employed heuristic robust estimator by as much as 3 dB in terms of the worst-case estimation MSE and around 1 dB in terms of the average BER performance under different practical transmission scenarios of interest. © 2010 IEEE.

Targon V.,European Patent office
Cognitive Computation | Year: 2016

Through semiotic modelling, a system can retrieve and manipulate its own representational formats to interpret a series of observations; this is in contrast to information processing approaches that require representational formats to be specified beforehand and thus limit the semantic properties that the system can experience. Our semiotic cognitive automaton is driven only by the observations it makes and therefore operates based on grounded symbols. A best-case scenario for our automaton involves observations that are univocally interpreted—i.e. distinct observation symbols—and that make reference to a reality characterised by “hard constraints”. Arithmetic offers such a scenario. The gap between syntax and semantics is also subtle in the case of calculations. Our automaton starts without any a priori knowledge of mathematical formalisms and not only learns the syntactical rules by which arithmetic operations are solved but also reveals the true meaning of numbers by means of second-order reasoning. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

This paper provides an overview of various search strategies, methods and tools for searching catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds. These are also commonly referred to as "homogeneous catalysts", in contradistinction to true heterogeneous metal or metal oxide catalysts, typically on an inorganic support. The characteristic material and search aspects are illustrated by way of exemplary patent applications for catalysts/systems that find use in industrially important reactions such as hydroformylation, hydrocyanation, (asymmetric) hydrogenation, olefin metathesis, cross-coupling or come from emerging fields (e.g. C-H activation, "green chemistry"). EPO internal, commercial, as well as some freeware tools are explained, including an evaluation of strengths and weaknesses. Emphasis is placed on how these catalysts are searched at the European Patent Office, i.e. patentability searches of patent applications. Nevertheless, the information and evaluations provided herein should enable the reader to set up a strategy for any specific search problem in this field, including high precision ("quick") and high recall clearance or validity searches. Additionally, much insight is provided on search methods at the EPO, databases etc, which can be of wider interest than catalyst searches alone. The paper is divided into two parts. This part (part 1) deals with terminology and the basics of patent searching, whereas part 2 in the next issue of this journal will deal with non-patent literature searching and the overall conclusions. See also the introduction for the distribution of content between the individual parts. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

In all relevant patent systems an adversely affected party has the possibility to appeal the patent office's decision in front of a patent court or Board of Appeal (BoA). Within a European context, the EPO is, in a way, even engaging in de facto competition with national patent offices. As an example, the German Patent and Trademark Office (DPMA) provides quasi identical patent products and offers the same kind of legal recourse to the German patent court (BPatGer) for these products. Both offices offer an opposition procedure which is open for appeal, and also in the case of a refusal, both offices offer the possibility of appeals. Thus, the EPO Boards of Appeal are engaged in making decisions every year on around 2000 cases and, e.g., the BPatGer on 600 cases regarding the legal validity of the first instance's work. It is thus remarkable that, so far, nobody has systematically included the work of the patent courts in a statistical legal validity evaluation in the context of the Patent & Trademark Offices' (PTOs') quality assurance systems. Since there is obviously a need to establish a common standard for the comparison of first and second instance legal teachings in patent law, a methodology for comparative legal validity analysis is proposed in this paper. I have tested and optimised the approach while working as a project manager at the European Patent Office, based on analysis of 2300 appeal decisions from seven annual batches. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Llosa M.,University of Cantabria | Schroder G.,University of Basel | Schroder G.,European Patent office | Dehio C.,University of Basel
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2012

The type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB/D4 of the facultative intracellular pathogen Bartonella henselae is known to translocate bacterial effector proteins into human cells. Two recent reports on DNA transfer into human cells have demonstrated the versatility of this bacterial secretion system for macromolecular substrate transfer. Moreover, these findings have opened the possibility for developing new tools for DNA delivery into specific human cell types. DNA can be introduced into these cells covalently attached to a site-specific integrase with potential target sequences in the human genome. This novel DNA delivery system is discussed in the context of existing methods for genetic modification of human cells. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Scott J.,European Patent office
World Patent Information | Year: 2010

The article addresses the issue of quality of patent information in relation to the EPO's activities. It first points out that achievable quality is heavily dependent on the quality of the supplied original text, especially as the largely unalterable A publication is used for most retrieval purposes: the EPO has legally limited opportunities to improve quality at this stage. However, the article details the improvements that can be made to title and abstracts, and the added value supplied by classification information and by the search reports, particularly in the written opinions of the Extended European Search Report.The additional actions taken by the EPO internally to improve and maintain quality are also outlined. These include routine checks on applications, extensive training, and limited full personal responsibility until examiners are both fully trained and experienced. In addition, a more detailed quality audit on a proportion of completed applications is carried out, and also a procedure before action is completed is taken at the technical cluster level. Whilst the article comments on EPO procedure, it is the opinion of the author alone and is not an official EPO view. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

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