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Bassi L.,European Patent office | Secchi C.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bonfe M.,University of Ferrara | Fantuzzi C.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2011

This paper describes a modeling methodology to support the design process of complex systems. The main challenge in modern industrial applications is the sheer volume of data involved in the design process. While using high-level abstraction is necessary to manage this data and analyze the system as a whole, designers need also to retain all the low-level information of the system, in order to be able to perform optimizations and modifications at later times. The solution proposed here is to use a hierarchy of models, each one describing the system at different levels of abstraction, and arrange them in such a way that it is possible to easily map each level onto the others. The topmost layer of the system description is expressed in System Modeling Language, a general-purpose modeling language based on Unified Modeling Language. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Nisar M.D.,TU Munich | Utschick W.,TU Munich | Hindelang T.,European Patent office
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2010

Two-dimensional minimum mean square error (MMSE) channel estimation for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems is known to perform better than the least squares, as well as the conventional 1-D MMSE estimation, owing to its ability of exploiting both, the time and the frequency correlations among the channel frequency response (CFR) coefficients. Its superior performance comes however at the price of increased requirementsthe knowledge of observation noise power and that of the channel frequency, as well as time correlation functions. In practical transmission scenarios, where channel correlation functions are not known or cannot be easily estimated, it is desirable to have an estimator that is robust to mismatches between the assumed and the actual channel correlation function. While such a robust estimator, for the case of an infinite number of observations, is well known for various uncertainty classes, not much attention has been paid to the practical case of a finite number of observations. We derive in this paper, the maximally robust (MR) 2-D channel estimator for the case of a finite number of pilot observations under some realistic constraints on the uncertainty class to which the 2-D channel correlation sequence belongs. We demonstrate that the correlation sequence associated with the MR estimator can be obtained by a simple semi-definite optimization procedure and is interestingly different from the well-known heuristic proposals. Simulation results establish the superiority of the proposed MR estimator over commonly employed heuristic robust estimator by as much as 3 dB in terms of the worst-case estimation MSE and around 1 dB in terms of the average BER performance under different practical transmission scenarios of interest. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Targon V.,European Patent office
Cognitive Computation | Year: 2016

Through semiotic modelling, a system can retrieve and manipulate its own representational formats to interpret a series of observations; this is in contrast to information processing approaches that require representational formats to be specified beforehand and thus limit the semantic properties that the system can experience. Our semiotic cognitive automaton is driven only by the observations it makes and therefore operates based on grounded symbols. A best-case scenario for our automaton involves observations that are univocally interpreted—i.e. distinct observation symbols—and that make reference to a reality characterised by “hard constraints”. Arithmetic offers such a scenario. The gap between syntax and semantics is also subtle in the case of calculations. Our automaton starts without any a priori knowledge of mathematical formalisms and not only learns the syntactical rules by which arithmetic operations are solved but also reveals the true meaning of numbers by means of second-order reasoning. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source


This paper provides an overview of various search strategies, methods and tools for searching catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds. These are also commonly referred to as "homogeneous catalysts", in contradistinction to true heterogeneous metal or metal oxide catalysts, typically on an inorganic support. The characteristic material and search aspects are illustrated by way of exemplary patent applications for catalysts/systems that find use in industrially important reactions such as hydroformylation, hydrocyanation, (asymmetric) hydrogenation, olefin metathesis, cross-coupling or come from emerging fields (e.g. C-H activation, "green chemistry"). EPO internal, commercial, as well as some freeware tools are explained, including an evaluation of strengths and weaknesses. Emphasis is placed on how these catalysts are searched at the European Patent Office, i.e. patentability searches of patent applications. Nevertheless, the information and evaluations provided herein should enable the reader to set up a strategy for any specific search problem in this field, including high precision ("quick") and high recall clearance or validity searches. Additionally, much insight is provided on search methods at the EPO, databases etc, which can be of wider interest than catalyst searches alone. The paper is divided into two parts. This part (part 1) deals with terminology and the basics of patent searching, whereas part 2 in the next issue of this journal will deal with non-patent literature searching and the overall conclusions. See also the introduction for the distribution of content between the individual parts. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


This paper provides an overview of various search strategies, methods and tools for searching catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds. These are also commonly referred to as "homogeneous catalysts", in contradistinction to true heterogeneous metal or metal oxide catalysts, typically on an inorganic support. The characteristic material and search aspects are illustrated by way of exemplary patent applications for catalysts/systems that find use in industrially important reactions such as hydroformylation, hydrocyanation, (asymmetric) hydrogenation, olefin metathesis, cross-coupling or come from emerging fields (e.g. C-H activation, "green chemistry"). EPO internal, commercial, as well as some freeware tools are explained, including an evaluation of strengths and weaknesses. Emphasis is placed on how these catalysts are searched at the European Patent Office, i.e. patentability searches of patent applications. Nevertheless, the information and evaluations provided herein should enable the reader to set up a strategy for any specific search problem in this field, including high precision (quick) and high recall clearance or validity searches. Additionally, much insight is provided on search methods at the EPO, databases etc, which can be of wider interest than catalyst searches alone. The paper is divided into two parts. This part (part 2) deals with non-patent literature searching and the overall conclusions, whereas part 1 in the previous issue of this journal dealt with terminology and the basics of patent searching. See also the Introduction in part 1 for the distribution of content between the individual parts. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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