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Tryfonidis K.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer EORTC Headquarters | Zardavas D.,Breast International Group Headquarters BIG aisbl | Cardoso F.,Breast Unit
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2014

Small (T1a, b), lymph node negative breast tumors represent an entity diagnosed with increasing frequency due to the implementation of wide-scale screening programs. Patients bearing such tumors usually exhibit favorable long-term outcomes, with low breast cancer mortality rates at 10. years, even in the absence of adjuvant chemotherapy. However, most available data derive from retrospective studies. Additionally, a subset of patients with these tumors experience recurrence of the disease, indicating that early tumor stage itself is not a sufficient prognosticator. It is of paramount importance to refine the prognosis of this population, identifying patients with high risk of recurrence, for whom adjuvant treatment is needed. The underlying biology of the disease provides relevant information, such as grade and status of hormone receptors and HER-2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), with high grade, triple negative and HER-2-positive tumors having worse prognosis. Additionally, multigene signatures may improve further the prognostication of patients with small, node negative breast cancers. Further research for this increasingly frequent group of patients is urgently needed, so that better informed clinical decision making, in particular regarding adjuvant chemotherapy, can occur. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Bidard F.-C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Bidard F.-C.,University of Paris Descartes | Fehm T.,University of Tubingen | Ignatiadis M.,Institute Jules Bordet | And 10 more authors.
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2013

In 2004, circulating tumor cells (CTC) enumeration by the CellSearch® technique at baseline and during treatment was reported to be associated with prognosis in metastatic breast cancer patients. In 2008, the first evidence of the impact of CTC detection by this technique on survival of cM0(i+) patients were reported. These findings were confirmed by other non-interventional studies, whereas CTC were also investigated as a surrogate for tumor biology, mainly for HER2 expression/amplification. The aim of this report is to present the current prospective large interventional studies that have been specifically designed to demonstrate that CTC enumeration/characterization may improve the management of breast cancer patients: STIC CTC METABREAST (France) and Endocrine Therapy Index (USA) assess the CTC-guided hormone therapy vs chemotherapy decision in M1 patients; SWOG0500 (USA) and CirCe01 (France) assess the CTC count changes during treatment in metastatic patients; DETECT III (M1 patients, Germany) and Treat CTC (cM0(i+) patients, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Breast International Group) assess the use of anti-HER2 treatments in HER2-negative breast cancer patients selected on the basis of CTC detection/characterization. These trials have different designs in various patient populations but are expected to be the pivotal trials for CTC implementation in the routine management of breast cancer patients. © 2012 The Author(s).

Whittaker S.,Kings College London | Ortiz P.,Hospital Universitario 12 Of Octubre | Dummer R.,University of Zurich | Ranki A.,University of Helsinki | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2012

Background Psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) is the standard treatment for early stages of mycosis fungoides. There have been no adequate randomized controlled trials with sufficient power comparing this modality with other therapies. Objective To assess disease response and to compare the response rates of patients treated with PUVA alone or PUVA and bexarotene. Methods EORTC 21011 (NCT 00056056) was a randomized phase III study comparing combined bexarotene (Targretin®) and PUVA vs. PUVA alone in patients with stage IB and IIA mycosis fungoides (MF). The primary endpoint was the overall response rate [complete clinical response (CCR) plus partial response (PR)]. Results The study was prematurely closed due to low accrual after 93 of 145 required patients (65%) were randomized. Of the 93 randomized patients, 87 started treatment, 41 received PUVA and 46 received PUVA + bexarotene. Total UVA doses received were 107 J cm-2 (range 1·4-489·9) in the PUVA arm vs. 101·7 J cm-2 (0·2-529·9) in the combination arm. The safety profile was acceptable with few grade 3-4 toxicities observed in either arm. More drop-outs due to toxicity were observed in the combination arm compared with the PUVA-alone arm. The best overall response (CCR + PR) rate was 71% for PUVA alone and 77% for the combination arm (P = 0·57). The median duration of response was 9·7 months for PUVA vs. 5·8 months for the combination arm (P = 0·33). CCR was seen in 25 patients of whom 10 received PUVA alone (CCR 22%) and 15 received combination therapy (CCR 31%) (P = 0·45). CCR was sustained in 25% of patients regardless of therapy. There was a trend towards fewer PUVA sessions needed to achieve CCR in the combination arm (median 22) compared with the PUVA arm (median 27·5) (P = 0·11). Similarly, a trend towards lower UVA dose required to achieve CCR in the combination arm (median 55·8 J cm-2) compared with the PUVA arm alone (median 117·5 J cm -2) (P = 0·5) was observed. Conclusions No significant difference in response rate or response duration was observed in this study. However, there was a trend towards fewer PUVA sessions and lower UVA dose required to achieve CCR in the combination arm (PUVA + bexarotene) but this did not achieve statistical significance due to insufficient power. See also the Commentary by Ahmed and Piguet © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

Ignatiadis M.,Free University of Colombia | Rack B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Rothe F.,Free University of Colombia | Riethdorf S.,University of Hamburg | And 16 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

There is increasing evidence that breast cancer evolves over time under the selection pressure of systemic treatment. Today, treatment decisions in early breast cancer are based on primary tumour characteristics without considering the disease evolution. Chemoresistant micrometastatic disease is poorly characterised and thus it is not used in current clinical practice as a tool to personalise treatment approaches. The detection of chemoresistant circulating tumour cells (CTCs) has been shown to be associated with worse prognosis in early breast cancer. The ongoing Treat CTC trial is the first international, liquid biopsy-based trial evaluating the concept of targeting chemoresistant minimal residual disease: detection of CTCs following adjuvant chemotherapy (adjuvant cohort) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients who did not achieve pathological complete response (neoadjuvant cohort). This article presents the rational and design of this trial and the results of the pilot phase after 350 patients have been screened and provides insights that might provide information for future trials using the liquid biopsy approach as a tool towards precision medicine (NCT01548677). © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Aslanyan M.G.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Kroeze L.I.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Langemeijer S.M.C.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Koorenhof-Scheele T.N.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 21 more authors.
Annals of Hematology | Year: 2014

We assessed the prognostic impact of TET2 mutations and mRNA expression in a prospective cohort of 357 adult AML patients<60 years of age enrolled in the European Organization For Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell' Adulto (GIMEMA) AML-12 06991 clinical trial. In addition the co-occurrence with other genetic defects and the functional consequences of TET2 mutations were investigated. TET2 mutations occurred in 7.6 % of the patients and were an independent marker of poor prognosis (p=0.024). TET2 and IDH1/2 mutations strongly associated with aberrations in the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A. Functional studies confirmed previous work that neither nonsense truncations, nor missense TET2 mutations, induced 5-hydroxymethylcytosine formation. In addition, we now show that mutant TET2 forms did not act in a dominant negative manner when co-expressed with the wild-type protein. Finally, as loss-of-function TET2 mutations predicted poor outcome, we questioned whether low TET2 mRNA expression in cases of AML without TET2 mutations would affect overall survival. Notably, also AML patients with low TET2 mRNA expression levels showed inferior overall survival. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

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