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Paoletti X.,Gustave Roussy Cancer Center | Paoletti X.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Drubay D.,Gustave Roussy Cancer Center | Drubay D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Collette L.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Headquarters
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2017

The most commonly used method for dose finding, the 3 þ 3, has poor performance. New adaptive designs are more efficient. Nevertheless, they have reached a maximum performance level, and further improvement requires either larger sample sizes or outcomes measures richer than the simplistic severe toxicity measured at cycle 1. ©2017 AACR.

Daugaard G.,Rigshospitalet | Skoneczna I.,Chemotherapy Unit | Aass N.,University of Oslo | de Wit R.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 7 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: To compare the efficacy of one cycle of standard dose cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (VIP) plus three cycles of high-dose VIP followed by stem-cell infusion [high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT arm)] to four cycles of standard cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (BEP) in patients with poor-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC). Patient and methods: Patients with poor-prognosis GCC were assigned to receive either BEP or VIP followed by HD-CT. To show a 15% improvement in a 1-year failure-free survival (FFS), the study aimed to recruit 222 patients but closed with 137, due to slow accrual. Results: One hundred thirty-one patients were included in this analysis. The complete response rates in the HD-CT and in the BEP arm did not differ: (intention to treat) 44.6% versus 33.3% (P = 0.18). There was no difference in FFS between the two treatment arms (P = 0.057, 66 events). At 2 years, the FFS rate was 44.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 32.5-56.4] and 58.2%, respectively (95% CI 48.0-71.9); but this 16.3% (standard deviation 7.5%) difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.060). Overall survival did not differ between the two groups (log-rank P > 0.1, 47 deaths). Conclusion: This study could not demonstrate that high-dose chemotherapy given as part of first-line therapy improves outcome in patients with poor-prognosis GCC. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Oosterlinck W.,Ghent University | Kirkali Z.,Dokuz Eylül University | Sylvester R.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Headquarters | Silva F.C.D.,Centro Hospitalar Of Lisbon Central | And 4 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2011

Background: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the intravesical treatment of choice for carcinoma in situ (CIS). Objective: Our aim was to assess if sequential mitomycin C (MMC) plus BCG after transurethral resection (TUR) is worthy of further study in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with CIS. Design, setting, and participants: In a noncomparative phase 2 study, 96 patients with primary/secondary/concurrent CIS of the urinary bladder were randomized to sequential MMC plus BCG or to BCG alone after TUR. Intervention: Patients received six weekly instillations of MMC followed by six weekly instillations of BCG or six weekly instillations of BCG, 3 wk rest, and three further weekly instillations of BCG. Complete responders received three weekly maintenance instillations at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 mo in accordance with the initial randomization. Measurements: End points were complete response (CR) rate at the first control cystoscopy 16-18 wk after start of treatment, disease-free interval, overall survival, and side effects. Results and limitations: Ninety-six patients were randomized, 48 to each treatment group. Ten patients were ineligible, and three did not start treatment. In all randomized patients, CR rates on MMC plus BCG and BCG alone were 70.8% and 66.7%, respectively. In 83 eligible patients who started treatment, CR rates were 75.6% and 73.8%, respectively. Based on a median follow-up of 4.7 yr, 25 patients (52.1%) on MMC plus BCG and 22 patients (45.8%) on BCG alone were disease free. Twelve patients stopped treatment due to toxicity: three during induction (two MMC plus BCG, one BCG) and nine during maintenance (three MMC plus BCG, six BCG). Conclusions: In the treatment of patients with CIS, sequential chemoimmunotherapy with MMC plus BCG had acceptable toxicity. CR and disease-free rates were similar to those on BCG alone and to previous publications on sequential chemoimmunotherapy. Trial registration: This study was registered with the US National Cancer Institute clinical trials database (protocol ID: EORTC-30993). aspx?cdrid=68869&version=HealthProfessional&protocolsearchid=7920643. © 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Vergote I.,University Hospitals | Trope C.G.,Norwegian Radium Hospital | Amant F.,University Hospitals | Kristensen G.B.,Norwegian Radium Hospital | And 14 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Primary debulking surgery before initiation of chemotherapy has been the standard of care for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with stage IIIC or IV epithelial ovarian carcinoma, fallopian-tube carcinoma, or primary peritoneal carcinoma to primary debulking surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy or to neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy followed by debulking surgery (so-called interval debulking surgery). RESULTS: Of the 670 patients randomly assigned to a study treatment, 632 (94.3%) were eligible and started the treatment. The majority of these patients had extensive stage IIIC or IV disease at primary debulking surgery (metastatic lesions that were larger than 5 cm in diameter in 74.5% of patients and larger than 10 cm in 61.6%). The largest residual tumor was 1 cm or less in diameter in 41.6% of patients after primary debulking and in 80.6% of patients after interval debulking. Postoperative rates of adverse effects and mortality tended to be higher after primary debulking than after interval debulking. The hazard ratio for death (intention-to-treat analysis) in the group assigned to neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking, as compared with the group assigned to primary debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy, was 0.98 (90% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 1.13; P = 0.01 for non-inferiority), and the hazard ratio for progressive disease was 1.01 (90% CI, 0.89 to 1.15). Complete resection of all macroscopic disease (at primary or interval surgery) was the strongest independent variable in predicting overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery was not inferior to primary debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy as a treatment option for patients with bulky stage IIIC or IV ovarian carcinoma in this study. Complete resection of all macroscopic disease, whether performed as primary treatment or after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, remains the objective whenever cytoreductive surgery is performed. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute; number, NCT00003636). Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

Kroep J.R.,Leiden University | Ouali M.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Headquarters | Gelderblom H.,Leiden University | Le Cesne A.,Institute Gustave Roussy | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: The role of chemotherapy in advanced malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is unclear. Patients and methods: Chemotherapy-naive soft tissue sarcomas (STS) patients treated on 12 pooled nonrandomized and randomized European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group trials were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical outcomes, overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS) and response were determined for MPNST and other STS histotypes and compared. Additionally, prognostic factors within the MPNST population were defined. Studied cofactors were demographics, sarcoma history, disease extent and chemotherapy regimen. Results: After a median follow-up of 4.1 years, 175 MPNST out of 2675 eligible STS patients were analyzed. Outcome was similar for MPNST versus other STS histotypes, with a response rate, median PFS and overall survival of 21% versus 22%, 17 versus 16 weeks and 48 versus 51 weeks, respectively. Performance status was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Chemotherapy regimen was an independent prognostic factor for response (P < 0.0001) and PFS (P = 0.009). Compared with standard first-line doxorubicin, the doxorubicin-ifosfamide regimen had the best response, whereas ifosfamide had the worst prognosis. Conclusion: This series indicates the role of chemotherapy in treatment of advanced MPNST. This first comparison showed similar outcomes for MPNST and other STS histotypes. The apparent superiority of the doxorubicin-ifosfamide regimen justifies further investigations of this combination in randomized trials. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Kroeze L.I.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Aslanyan M.G.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Van Rooij A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Koorenhof-Scheele T.N.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 11 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) frequently harbor mutations in genes involved in the DNA (hydroxy)methylation pathway (DNMT3A, TET2, IDH1, and IDH2). In this study, we measured 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) levels in 206 clinically and molecularly well-characterized younger adult AML patients (≤60 years) included in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adulto (EORTC/GIMEMA) AML-1206991 clinical trial and correlated the 5hmC levels with mutational status and overall survival (OS). In healthy control cells, 5hmC levels were confined to a narrow range (1.5-fold difference), whereas in AML cells, a much wider range was detected (15-fold difference). We identified 3 5hmC subpopulations in our patient cohort (low, intermediate, and high). The low 5hmC group consisted almost entirely of patients with TET2 or IDH mutations. As expected, TET2 and IDH mutated patients had significantly lower levels of 5hmC compared with patients without mutated TET2 and IDH1/2 (both P < .001). Interestingly, high 5hmC levels correlated with inferior OS (high vs intermediate 5hmC: P = .047, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.81). Multivariate analysis revealed that high 5hmC is an independent poor prognostic indicator for OS (high vs intermediate 5hmC: P = .01, HR = 2.10). This trial was registered at as NCT00004128. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

Van Den Bent M.J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Dubbink H.J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Marie Y.,Center Hospitalier University Pitie Salpetriere | Brandes A.A.,Bellaria Maggiore Hospital | And 11 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Purpose: Recent studies have shown the prognostic significance of IDH1 mutations in glioma. It is yet unclear if IDH1 mutations are predictive for outcome to chemotherapy. We determined the effect of IDH1 mutations on progression-free survival and overall survival (OS), and its correlation with other clinical and molecular features in the prospective randomized European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer study 26951 on adjuvant procarbazine, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-L-nitrosourea, and vincristine (PCV) in anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Experimental Design: IDH1 and IDH2 alterations of the mutational hotspot codons R132 and R172 were assessed by the bidirectional cycle sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments. MGMT promoter methylation was assessed using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependant probe amplification based on methylation-sensitive restriction analysis. Loss of chromosomes 1p, 19q, 10, and 10q and the gain of 7 and the EGFR gene were assessed with fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results: From 159 patients, sufficient material was available for IDH1 analysis. In 151 and 118 of these patients, respectively, the 1p/19q status and the MGMT promoter methylation status were known. In 73 cases (46%), an IDH1 mutation was found and only one IDH2 mutation was identified. The presence of IDH1 mutations correlated with 1p/19q codeletion and MGMT promoter methylation, and inversely correlated with loss of chromosome 10, EGFR amplification, polysomy of chromosome 7, and the presence of necrosis. IDH1 mutations were found to be prognostic in the radiotherapy- and the radiotherapy/PCV-treated patients, for both progression-free survival and OS. With Cox proportional hazard modeling for OS with stepwise selection, IDH1 mutations and 1p/19q codeletion but not MGMT promoter methylation were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion: In this homogeneously treated group of anaplastic oligodendroglioma patients, the presence of IDH1 mutations was found to carry a very strong prognostic significance for OS but without evidence of a predictive significance for outcome to PCV chemotherapy. IDH1 mutations were strongly associated with 1p/ 19q codeletion and MGMT promoter methylation. ©2010 AACR.

Bollineni V.R.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Headquarters | Kramer G.,VU University Amsterdam | Liu Y.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Headquarters | Melidis C.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Headquarters | deSouza N.M.,The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2015

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is used extensively to improve tumour detection and localization because it offers excellent soft tissue contrast between malignant and non-malignant tissues. It also provides a quantitative biomarker; the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) can be derived from DW-MRI sequences using multiple diffusion weightings. ADC reflects the tumour microenvironment, e.g. cell membrane integrity and cellularity and has potential for reporting on tumour aggressiveness. This review focuses on the use of the DW-MRI derived imaging biomarker ADC to reflect tumour aggressiveness and its potential impact in managing pelvic cancer patients. The clinical studies which evaluate the role of ADC in pelvic tumours (prostate, bladder, rectal, ovary, cervix and uterus) are summarized and the evidence linking ADC values with tumour aggressiveness is evaluated. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Sylvester R.J.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Headquarters
International Journal of Urology | Year: 2011

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used in the intravesical treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) for nearly 35years; however, its use is still subject to controversy. The objective of this paper is to review the role of BCG in the treatment of patients with NMIBC. Clinical trials, meta-analyses and guidelines related to the administration, safety and efficacy of intravesical BCG were reviewed. Intravesical BCG is more effective than intravesical chemotherapy in decreasing the risk of recurrence and progression to muscle invasive disease; however, it is associated with more local and systemic side-effects. It is the gold standard in patients at high risk of progression. Maintenance BCG is required in order to achieve the best therapeutic results; however, the optimal dose, induction and maintenance schedules, and duration of treatment are unknown and might be different for each patient. Patients failing BCG treatment have a poor prognosis, and cystectomy is then the recommended treatment. Patients at low risk of recurrence and progression should not receive BCG, because of its side effects. Intermediate-risk patients might be treated with either intravesical chemotherapy or BCG; however, for patients at high risk of progression, BCG is recognized as the treatment of choice. Further research is urgently needed to identify markers associated with BCG failure and to develop effective alternatives to cystectomy in patients failing BCG. © 2010 The Japanese Urological Association.

Paoletti X.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Doussau A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Doussau A.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation | Ezzalfani M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2015

Phase I oncology clinical trials are designed to identify the optimal dose that will be recommended for phase II trials. This dose is typically defined as the dose associated with a certain probability of severe toxicity at cycle 1, although toxicity is repeatedly measured over cycles on an ordinal scale. Recently, a proportional odds mixed-effect model for ordinal outcomes has been proposed to (i) identify the optimal dose accounting for repeated events and (ii) to provide some framework to explore time trend. We compare this approach to a method based on repeated binary variables and to a method based on an under-parameterized model of the dose-time toxicity relationship. We show that repeated binary and ordinal outcomes both improve the accuracy of dose-finding trials in the same proportion; ordinal outcomes are, however, superior to detect time trend even in the presence of nonproportional odds models. Moreover, less parameterized models led to the best operating characteristics. These approaches are illustrated on two dose-finding phase I trials. Integration of repeated measurements is appealing in phase I dose-finding trials. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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