European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer EORTC

Brussels, Belgium

European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer EORTC

Brussels, Belgium

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Maertens J.,University Ziekenhuizen Leuven | Baila L.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer EORTC | Aoun M.,Free University of Brussels | Heinz W.,University of Würzburg | And 10 more authors.
Bone Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2010

Caspofungin at standard dose was evaluated as first-line monotherapy of mycologically documented probable/proven invasive aspergillosis (IA) (unmodified European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group criteria) in allogeneic hematopoietic SCT patients. The primary efficacy end point was complete or partial response at end of caspofungin treatment. Response at week 12, survival and safety were additional end points. Enrollment was stopped prematurely because of low accrual, with 42 enrolled and 24 eligible, giving the study a power of 85%. Transplant was from unrelated donors in 16 patients; acute or chronic GVHD was present in 15. In all, 12 patients were neutropenic (500/l) at baseline, 10 received steroids and 16 calcineurin inhibitors or sirolimus. Median duration of caspofungin treatment was 24 days. At the end of caspofungin therapy, 10 (42%) patients had complete or partial response (95% confidence interval: 22-63%); 1 (4%) and 12 (50%) had stable and progressing disease, respectively; one was not evaluable. At week 12, eight patients (33%) had complete or partial response. Survival rates at week 6 and 12 were 79 and 50%, respectively. No patient had a drug-related serious adverse event or discontinued because of toxicity. Caspofungin first-line therapy was effective and well tolerated in allogeneic hematopoietic SCT patients with mycologically documented IA. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Poortmans P.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Poortmans P.M.,Institute Verbeeten | Collette S.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer EORTC | Kirkove C.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 23 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2015

Background The effect of internal mammary and medial supraclavicular lymph-node irradiation (regional nodal irradiation) added to whole-breast or thoracic-wall irradiation after surgery on survival among women with early-stage breast cancer is unknown. METHODS We randomly assigned women who had a centrally or medially located primary tumor, irrespective of axillary involvement, or an externally located tumor with axillary involvement to undergo either whole-breast or thoracic-wall irradiation in addition to regional nodal irradiation (nodal-irradiation group) or whole-breast or thoracic-wall irradiation alone (control group). The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points were the rates of disease-free survival, survival free from distant disease, and death from breast cancer. RESULTS Between 1996 and 2004, a total of 4004 patients underwent randomization. The majority of patients (76.1%) underwent breast-conserving surgery. After mastectomy, 73.4% of the patients in both groups underwent chest-wall irradiation. Nearly all patients with node-positive disease (99.0%) and 66.3% of patients with node-negative disease received adjuvant systemic treatment. At a median follow-up of 10.9 years, 811 patients had died. At 10 years, overall survival was 82.3% in the nodal-irradiation group and 80.7% in the control group (hazard ratio for death with nodal irradiation, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.00; P = 0.06). The rate of disease-free survival was 72.1% in the nodal-irradiation group and 69.1% in the control group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.00; P = 0.04), the rate of distant disease-free survival was 78.0% versus 75.0% (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.98; P = 0.02), and breast-cancer mortality was 12.5% versus 14.4% (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97; P = 0.02). Acute side effects of regional nodal irradiation were modest. CONCLUSIONS In patients with early-stage breast cancer, irradiation of the regional nodes had a marginal effect on overall survival. Disease-free survival and distant disease-free survival were improved, and breast-cancer mortality was reduced. © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Djidja M.-C.,Institute of Cancer Research | Djidja M.-C.,Novartis | Chang J.,Institute of Cancer Research | Chang J.,Copenhagen University | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2014

Hypoxia is present in most solid tumors and is clinically correlated with increased metastasis and poor patient survival. While studies have demonstrated the role of hypoxia and hypoxia-regulated proteins in cancer progression, no attempts have been made to identify hypoxia-regulated proteins using quantitative proteomics combined with MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). Here we present a comprehensive hypoxic proteome study and are the first to investigate changes in situ using tumor samples. In vitro quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of the hypoxic proteome was performed on breast cancer cells using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). MS analyses were performed on laser-capture microdissected samples isolated from normoxic and hypoxic regions from tumors derived from the same cells used in vitro. MALDI-MSI was used in combination to investigate hypoxia-regulated protein localization within tumor sections. Here we identified more than 100 proteins, both novel and previously reported, that were associated with hypoxia. Several proteins were localized in hypoxic regions, as identified by MALDI-MSI. Visualization and data extrapolation methods for the in vitro SILAC data were also developed, and computational mapping of MALDI-MSI data to IHC results was applied for data validation. The results and limitations of the methodologies described are discussed. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Pallis A.G.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer EORTC | Gridelli C.,Sg Moscati Hospital Avellino | Wedding U.,Jena University Hospital | Faivre-Finn C.,The Christie NHS Foundation Trust | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2014

Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a very common disease in the elderly population and its incidence in this particular population is expected to increase further, because of the ageing of the Western population. Despite this, limited data are available for the treatment of these patients and, therefore, the development of evidence-based treatment recommendations is challenging. In 2010, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) took an initiative in collaboration with International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) and created an experts panel that provided an experts' opinion consensus paper for the management of elderly NSCLC patients. Since this publication, important new data are available and EORTC and SIOG recommended to update the 2010 recommendations. Besides recommendations for surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, treatment of locally advanced and metastatic disease, recommendations were expanded, to include data on patient preferences and geriatric assessment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Oddens J.,Robert Bosch GmbH | Brausi M.,B Ramazzini Hospital | Sylvester R.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer EORTC | Bono A.,Ospedale di Circolo | And 8 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2013

Background: The optimal dose and duration of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) are controversial. Objective: To determine if a one-third dose (1/3D) is not inferior to the full dose (FD), if 1 yr of maintenance is not inferior to 3 yr of maintenance, and if 1/3D and 1 yr of maintenance are associated with less toxicity. Design, setting, and participants: After transurethral resection, intermediate- and high-risk NMIBC patients were randomized to one of four BCG groups: 1/3D-1 yr, 1/3D-3 yr, FD-1 yr, and FD-3 yr. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The trial was designed as a noninferiority study with the null hypothesis of a 10% decrease in the disease-free rate at 5 yr. Times to events were estimated using cumulative incidence functions and compared using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results and limitations: In an intention-to-treat analysis of 1355 patients with a median follow-up of 7.1 yr, there were no significant differences in toxicity between 1/3D and FD. The null hypotheses of inferiority of the disease-free interval for both 1/3D and 1 yr could not be rejected. We found that 1/3D-1 yr is suboptimal compared with FD-3 yr (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.94; p = 0.01). Intermediate-risk patients treated with FD do not benefit from an additional 2 yr of BCG. In high-risk patients, 3 yr is associated with a reduction in recurrence (HR: 1.61; 95% CI, 1.13-2.30; p = 0.009) but only when given at FD. There were no differences in progression or survival. Conclusions: There were no differences in toxicity between 1/3D and FD. Intermediate-risk patients should be treated with FD-1 yr. In high-risk patients, FD-3 yr reduces recurrences as compared with FD-1 yr but not progressions or deaths. The benefit of the two additional years of maintenance should be weighed against its added costs and inconvenience. Trial registration: This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00002990; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/ record/NCT00002990. © 2012 European Association of Urology.


Voit C.A.,University Medicine | Voit C.A.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer EORTC | Gooskens S.L.M.,Erasmus Medical Center | Gooskens S.L.M.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer EORTC | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Background Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology (US-guided FNAC) can identify microscopic involvement of lymph nodes as in breast cancer and avoid surgical sentinel node (SN). Its utility in melanoma patients is controversial and subject of this study. Methods Between 2001 and 2010 over 1000 stage I/II consecutive melanoma patients prospectively underwent US-FNAC prior to SN biopsy. All patients underwent lymphoscintigraphy prior to US-FNAC. The Berlin US morphology criteria: Peripheral perfusion (PP), loss of central echoes (LCE) and balloon shaped (BS) were registered. FNAC was performed in case of presence of any of these factors. SN tumour burden was measured according to the Rotterdam criteria. All patients underwent SN or lymph node dissection (LND) in case of positive FNAC. Findings Mean/median Breslow thickness was 2.58/1.57 mm. Mean/median follow-up was 56/53 months (1-132). SN positivity rate was 21%. US-FNAC Sensitivity was 71% (US only) and 51% (US-FNAC). Sensitivity of US-FNAC was highest for T4 (76%) and ulcerated melanomas (63%). PP, LCE and BS had sensitivity of 69%, 24% and 24% respectively. Sensitivity of US-FNAC increased with increasing SN tumour burden. PP was an early sign of metastasis (58% in <0.1 mm metastases). Threshold size of a metastasis for FNAC was 0.3 mm. Five-year survival correlated to US-FNAC status (95% in negative and 59% in positive). Interpretation Ultrasound guided FNAC (US-FNAC) according to the Berlin morphology criteria could correctly identify at least half of all tumour positive sentinel nodes, prior to the surgical SN procedure. Peripheral perfusion is an early sign of metastasis, which is very sensitive, but with lower positive predictive value (PPV). It is responsible for the sensitivity of the procedure. Balloon shape is a sign of advanced metastases, with lower sensitivity, but high PPV. US-FNAC sensitivity correlated with increasing T-stage, ulceration of the primary and increasing SN tumour burden. US-FNAC status accurately predicts survival.© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tzogani K.,European Medicines Agency | Skibeli V.,Norwegian Medicines Agency | Westgaard I.,Norwegian Medicines Agency | Dalhus M.,Norwegian Medicines Agency | And 12 more authors.
Oncologist | Year: 2015

Axitinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3. Based on the positive opinion from the European Medicines Agency (EMA), a marketing authorization valid throughout the European Union (EU)wasissued for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after failure of prior treatment with sunitinib or a cytokine. The demonstration of clinical benefit for axitinib was based on a phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study of axitinib compared with sorafenib in patients with advanced RCC after failure of a prior systemic first-line regimen containing one or more of the following agents: sunitinib, bevacizumab plus interferon-a, temsirolimus, or cytokines. In the primary analysis, a 2-month increase in median progression-free survival (PFS) was observed for axitinib compared with sorafenib (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.665; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.544–0.812; p,.0001). In the subgroupof patients with a prior cytokine-containing regimen, the increase in median PFS associated with axitinib was 5.4 months (updated analysis, HR: 0.519; 95% CI: 0.375–0.720; p,.0001). In the subgroup of patients with prior sunitinib treatment, the increase in median PFS was 1.4 months (updated analysis, HR: 0.736; 95% CI: 0.578–0.937; p 5.0063). The analysis of overall survival showed no statistically significant survival benefit of axitinib over sorafenib in patients previously treated with cytokine-containing regimens (HR: 0.813; 95% CI: 0.556–1.191) or sunitinib (HR: 0.997; 95% CI: 0.782–1.270). The most common treatment-related adverse events associated with axitinib included diarrhea, hypertension, fatigue, nausea, decreased appetite, dysphonia, and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia. Mostof these events were mild or moderate in severity. This paper summarizes the scientific review of the application leading to approval in the EU. The detailed scientific assessment report and product information, including the summary of product characteristics, areavailableontheEMAwebsite(http://www.ema.europa.eu). © AlphaMed Press 2015.


Hall J.A.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer EORTC | Hall J.A.,Head of Translational Research Unit | Daidone M.G.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Peters G.J.,VU University Amsterdam | And 3 more authors.
Biopreservation and Biobanking | Year: 2011

Access to biospecimens and their derivatives, that is, human biological materials (HBM), for translational research (TR) is considered a major bottleneck hindering successful bench to bedside translation. Clinical trials offer a unique opportunity to collect HBM in a specialized setting that allows prospectively designed, high-quality TR that would be difficult to fulfill from community- or population-based HBM collections alone. Increasingly, as the field advances toward personalized treatment of cancer patients, access to HBM is becoming a necessity for patient enrollment in a new generation of clinical studies that are designed and driven by molecular hypotheses. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) is one of the largest networks for clinical trials in oncology. The EORTC is re-focusing its strategy, building on experiences and expertise gained over the years from specific initiatives such as EORTC Group activities and the EORTC Virtual Tumour Bank, by developing new mechanisms to support investigators with the practical aspects of HBM collection as part of EORTC clinical studies. Due to the complex, multidisciplinary nature of HBM collection and TR, integration of HBM collection into clinical trials warrants careful upfront planning and input from a range of expertise. To simplify HBM collection in clinical studies, the EORTC has developed a simple checklist containing the key elements of HBM collection setup and combines these into a simple tool for practical use. Through identifying and managing key risk areas, this can maximize the HBM collection success while achieving efficient clinical trial development. This article focuses on the key elements of HBM collection and the approaches of the EORTC for efficiently integrating this collection into clinical trial development. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


PubMed | Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale Tumori, University of Lyon, Italian National Cancer Institute and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer EORTC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology | Year: 2015

While they account for one-fifth of new cancer cases, rare cancers are difficult to study. A higher than average degree of uncertainty should be accommodated for clinical as well as for population-based decision making. Rules of rational decision making in conditions of uncertainty should be rigorously followed and would need widely informative clinical trials. In principle, any piece of new evidence would need to be exploited in rare cancers. Methodologies to explicitly weigh and combine all the available evidence should be refined, and the Bayesian logic can be instrumental to this end. Likewise, Bayesian-design trials may help optimize the low number of patients liable to be enrolled in clinical studies on rare cancers, as well as adaptive trials in general, with their inherent potential of flexibility when properly applied. While clinical studies are the mainstay to test hypotheses, the potential of electronic patient records should be exploited to generate new hypotheses, to create external controls for future studies (when internal controls are unpractical), to study effectiveness of new treatments in real conditions. Framework study protocols in specific rare cancers to sequentially test sets of new agents, as from the early post-phase I development stage, should be encouraged. Also the compassionate and the off-label settings should be exploited to generate new evidence, and flexible regulatory innovations such as adaptive licensing could convey new agents early to rare cancer patients, while generating evidence. Though validation of surrogate end points is problematic in rare cancers, the use of an updated notion of tumor response may be of great value in the single patient to optimize the use of therapies, all the more the new ones. Disease-based communities, involving clinicians and patients, should be regularly consulted by regulatory bodies when setting their policies on drug approval and reimbursement in specific rare cancers.


Schoffski P.,Catholic University of Leuven | Blay J.-Y.,University of Lyon | De Greve J.,University Hospital Brussels | Brain E.,Center Rene Huguenin | And 14 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Aims: BI 2536 is a selective and potent small-molecule inhibitor of polo-like kinase 1. We performed a multi-centre, multi-tumour phase II trial to investigate the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of BI 2536 in five solid tumour types. Patients and methods: Patients with advanced head and neck, breast and ovarian cancer, soft tissue sarcoma and melanoma were selected according to protocol-defined general and tumour-specific criteria. They were ≥18 years old, had a good performance status, adequate bone marrow, renal and liver function, measurable progressive disease and had completed other relevant systemic treatments >4 weeks ago. BI 2536 200-250 mg was given intravenously on day 1 every 3 weeks until intolerance, progression or refusal. The study was based on a Simon two-stage design, with 12 patients entering in stage 1 and additional 25 patients to be entered in case of at least one response in the first stage. The rate of objective responses (RECIST criteria) was chosen as primary end-point. Results: Seventy six patients were included, 71 started treatment and received a median number of two cycles (four in ovarian cancer). Frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropaenia (81.6%), thrombocytopaenia (19.7%), febrile neutropaenia (19.7%), anaemia (15.5%) and pain (9.9%). We did not observe confirmed objective responses. All cohorts were closed after the entry of 14-15 eligible non-responding patients. Pharmacokinetic analyses revealed multi-compartmental behaviour and a rapid distribution of BI 2536. Conclusions: BI 2536 showed limited antitumour activity according to the design of this trial in five different tumour types. Derivatives of BI 2536 with a more favourable pharmacological profile are currently explored further in prospective studies. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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