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Chow E.,University of Toronto | Nguyen J.,University of Toronto | Zhang L.,University of Toronto | Tseng L.-M.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital | And 9 more authors.

Background: The objective of this international field study was to test the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-BM22 module to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with bone metastases. Methods: Patients undergoing a variety of bone metastases-specific treatments were accrued. The QLQ-BM22 was administered with the QLQ-C30 at baseline and at 1 follow-up time point internationally. A debriefing questionnaire was administered to determine patient acceptability and understanding. Results: Large-scale field testing of the QLQ-BM22 in addition to the QLQ-C30 took place in 7 countries: Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Egypt, France, India, and Taiwan. A total of 400 patients participated. Multitrait scaling analyses confirmed 4 scales in the 22-item module. The scales were able to discriminate between clinically distinct patient groups, such as between those with a poor and those with a better performance status. The QLQ-BM22 was well received in all 7 countries, and the majority of patients did not recommend any significant changes from the module in its current form. Conclusions: The final QLQ-BM22 module contains 22 items and 4 scales assessing Painful Sites, Painful Characteristics, Functional Interference, and Psychosocial Aspects. Results confirmed the validity, reliability, cross-cultural applicability, and sensitivity of the 22-item EORTC QLQ-BM22. It is therefore recommended that the QLQ-BM22 be used in addition to the QLQ-C30 in clinical trials to assess HRQOL in patients with bone metastases. © 2011 American Cancer Society. Source

Oddens J.R.,Robert Bosch GmbH | Sylvester R.J.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer | Brausi M.A.,New Estense S. Agostino Hospital Ausl | Kirkels W.J.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
European Urology

Background Although maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the recommended treatment in high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), its efficacy in older patients is controversial. Objective To determine the effect of age on prognosis and treatment outcome in patients with stage Ta T1 NMIBC treated with maintenance BCG. Design, setting, and participants A total of 957 patients with intermediate- or high-risk Ta T1 (without carcinoma in situ) NMIBC were randomized in European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) trial 30911 comparing six weekly instillations of epirubicin, BCG, and BCG plus isoniazid followed by three weekly maintenance instillations over 3 yr. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Cox multivariate proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the relative importance of age for recurrence, progression, overall survival, and NMIBC-specific survival with adjustment for EORTC risk scores. Results and limitations Overall, 822 eligible patients were included: 546 patients in the BCG with or without INH arms and 276 in the epirubicin arm. In patients treated with BCG with or without INH, 34.1% were >70 yr of age and 3.7% were >80 yr. With a median follow-up of 9.2 yr, patients >70 yr had a shorter time to progression (p = 0.028), overall survival (p < 0.001), and NMIBC-specific survival (p = 0.049) after adjustment for EORTC risk scores in the multivariate analysis. The time to recurrence was similar compared with the younger patients. BCG was more effective than epirubicin for all four end points considered, and there was no evidence that BCG was any less effective compared with epirubicin in patients >70 yr. Conclusions In intermediate- and high-risk Ta T1 urothelial bladder cancer patients treated with BCG, patients >70 yr of age have a worse long-term prognosis; however, BCG is more effective than epirubicin independent of patient age. Patient summary Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer is less effective in patients >70 yr of age, but it is still more effective than epirubicin. © 2014 European Association of Urology. Source

Van Der Ploeg A.P.T.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Van Akkooi A.C.J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Rutkowski P.,Center of Oncology of Poland | Cook M.,Royal Surrey County Hospital | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Surgery

Background: The therapeutic value of immediate completion lymph node dissection (CLND) for sentinel node (SN)-positive melanoma is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of immediate CLND on the outcome of patients with SN-positive melanoma. Methods: Patients with SN metastases treated between 1993 and 2008 at ten cancer centres from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Melanoma Group were included in this retrospective study. Maximum tumour size, intranodal location and penetrative depth of SN metastases were measured. Outcome in those who had CLND was compared with that in patients who did not undergo completion lymphadenectomy. Results: Of 1174 patients with SN-positive melanoma, 1113 (94·8 per cent) underwent CLND and 61 (5·2 per cent) did not. Median follow-up for the two groups was 34 and 48 months respectively. In univariable survival analysis, CLND did not significantly influence disease-specific survival (hazard ratio (HR) 0·89, 95 per cent confidence interval 0·58 to 1·37; P = 0·600). However, patients who did not undergo CLND had more favourable prognostic factors. Matched-pair analysis, with matching for age, Breslow thickness, tumour ulceration and SN tumour burden, showed that CLND had no influence on survival (HR 0·86, 0·46 to 1·61; P = 0·640). After adjusting for prognostic factors in multivariable survival analyses, no difference in survival was found. Conclusion: In these two cohorts of patients with SN-positive melanoma and prognostic heterogeneity, outcome was not influenced by CLND. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Quinten C.,European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer | Maringwa J.,EORTC Headquarters | Gotay C.C.,University of British Columbia | Martinelli F.,University of British Columbia | And 14 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Background The National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE) reporting system is widely used by clinicians to measure patient symptoms in clinical trials. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer's Quality of Life core questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) enables cancer patients to rate their symptoms related to their quality of life. We examined the extent to which patient and clinician symptom scoring and their agreement could contribute to the estimation of overall survival among cancer patients. Methods We analyzed baseline data regarding six cancer symptoms (pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and constipation) from a total of 2279 cancer patients from 14 closed EORTC randomized controlled trials. In each trial that was selected for retrospective pooled analysis, both clinician and patient symptom scoring were reported simultaneously at study entry. We assessed the extent of agreement between clinician vs patient symptom scoring using the Spearman and kappa correlation statistics. After adjusting for age, sex, performance status, cancer severity, and cancer site, we used Harrell concordance index (C-index) to compare the potential for clinician- reported and/or patient-reported symptom scores to improve the accuracy of Cox models to predict overall survival. All P values are from two-sided tests. Results Patient-reported scores for some symptoms, particularly fatigue, did differ from clinician-reported scores. For each of the six symptoms that we assessed at baseline, both clinician and patient scorings contributed independently and positively to the predictive accuracy of survival prognostication. Cox models of overall survival that considered both patient and clinician scores gained more predictive accuracy than models that considered clinician scores alone for each of four symptoms: fatigue (C-index = .67 with both patient and clinician data vs C-index = .63 with clinician data only; P <.001), vomiting (C-index = .64 vs .62; P = .01), nausea (C-index = .65 vs .62; P < .001), and constipation (C-index = .62 vs .61; P = .01). © The Author 2011. Source

Francis P.A.,University of Melbourne | Francis P.A.,University of Newcastle | Regan M.M.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Regan M.M.,Harvard University | And 35 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND Suppression of ovarian estrogen production reduces the recurrence of hormonereceptor- positive early breast cancer in premenopausal women, but its value when added to tamoxifen is uncertain.METHODS We randomly assigned 3066 premenopausal women, stratified according to prior receipt or nonreceipt of chemotherapy, to receive 5 years of tamoxifen, tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression, or exemestane plus ovarian suppression. The primary analysis tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression would improve disease-free survival, as compared with tamoxifen alone. In the primary analysis, 46.7% of the patients had not received chemotherapy previously, and 53.3% had received chemotherapy and remained premenopausal.RESULTS After a median follow-up of 67 months, the estimated disease-free survival rate at 5 years was 86.6% in the tamoxifen-ovarian suppression group and 84.7% in the tamoxifen group (hazard ratio for disease recurrence, second invasive cancer, or death, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.04; P = 0.10). Multivariable allowance for prognostic factors suggested a greater treatment effect with tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression than with tamoxifen alone (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98). Most recurrences occurred in patients who had received prior chemotherapy, among whom the rate of freedom from breast cancer at 5 years was 82.5% in the tamoxifen-ovarian suppression group and 78.0% in the tamoxifen group (hazard ratio for recurrence, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.02). At 5 years, the rate of freedom from breast cancer was 85.7% in the exemestane-ovarian suppression group (hazard ratio for recurrence vs. tamoxifen, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.87).CONCLUSIONS Adding ovarian suppression to tamoxifen did not provide a significant benefit in the overall study population. However, for women who were at sufficient risk for recurrence to warrant adjuvant chemotherapy and who remained premenopausal, the addition of ovarian suppression improved disease outcomes. Further improvement was seen with the use of exemestane plus ovarian suppression. Copyright © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved. Source

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