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China could soon rival Europe and the U.S. as a global leader in the field of particle physics. The world's most populous country now also aims to build the world's most powerful supercollider to have a better understanding of the Higgs boson, the so-called god-particle. China plans an investment of $6 billion to build the facility, which will be at least twice the size of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. The LHC is currently the world's largest and most powerful particle collider. The blueprint for the project dubbed the "Higgs Factory" was drafted in 2014 by researchers at China's Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). The supercollider will be an underground facility that will smash subatomic particles at enormous speeds so as to generate millions of Higgs boson particles, which scientists believe is one of the fundamental blocks of the universe. The Higgs boson particle was discovered in 2012 by scientists who used CERN's LHC to smash high-energy proton beams at nearly the speed of light. Despite its enormous size and power, the LHC has limitations. IHEP director Wang Yifang said that the accelerator may not be capable of generating large quantities of the Higgs boson particles needed to support further studies. Wang said China's particle accelerator could offer a step closer to unraveling the mysteries of the universe as it will operate at about seven times the energy level of CERN's collider. Compared to the LHC, which lies in a tunnel 27 kilometers in circumference and 175 meters beneath the France-Switzerland border, the Chinese supercollider will lie in a massive underground ring measuring more than 50 kilometers in circumference. Qinhuangdao, a northern port city in China, is being considered for the location of the facility given its favorable geological conditions. Wang said China's version of LHC will be capable of producing large quantities of Higgs boson particles and this may help recreate the conditions following the Big Bang, which could shed light on the origins of universe and matter. The central government has yet to give approval to the plan, but scientists are optimistic that the research needed to construct the facility can begin as early as late 2016. Construction is anticipated to start by 2021. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


News Article | November 25, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO UNITED STATES NEWSWIRE SERVICES OR FOR DISSEMINATION IN THE UNITED STATES. Zecotek Photonics Inc. (TSX VENTURE: ZMS) ( : W1I), a developer of leading-edge photonics technologies for medical, industrial and scientific markets, today announced that the Company has closed on the second tranche of the non-brokered private placement, announced on November 7, 2016, by selling 3,620,000 units of the Company at a price of $0.30 per unit for gross proceeds of $1,086,000. The Company has sold an aggregate of 4,620,000 units at a price of $0.30 for total gross proceeds of $1,386,000 in the first two tranches. Each unit consists of one common share and one common share purchase warrant. Each warrant entitles the holder to acquire one common share at an exercise price of $0.43 per common share at any time on or before the 24-month anniversary of the closing of the offering. The Company paid finder's fees on the second tranche consisting of cash fees totalling $69,020 and issued 230,067 finder's warrants. Each finder's warrant entitles the Warrantholder to acquire one unit (the "Unit") at a price of $0.30 per Unit. Each Unit consists of one Common Share in the capital of the Company and one half of a share purchase warrant (the "Unit Warrant"). Each whole Unit Warrant shall entitle the Warrantholder to acquire one Common Share at a price of $0.43 per Common Share until November 25, 2018. All securities issued are subject to a four-month hold period expiring on March 26, 2017. Net proceeds from the funds raised will be used to complete the transfer of technology for the purpose of immediate commercialization, strengthen and maintain patents of the Company's IP portfolio, and used for purchase order financings and general working capital purposes. About Zecotek Zecotek Photonics Inc (TSX VENTURE: ZMS) ( : W1I) is a photonics technology company developing high-performance scintillation crystals, photo detectors, positron emission tomography scanning technologies, 3D auto-stereoscopic displays, 3D metal printing, and lasers for applications in medical, high-tech and industrial sectors. Founded in 2004, Zecotek operates three divisions: Imaging Systems, Optronics Systems and 3D Display Systems with labs located in Canada, Korea, Russia, Singapore and U.S.A. The management team is focused on building shareholder value by commercializing over 50 patented and patent pending novel photonic technologies directly and through strategic alliances, the European Organization for Nuclear Research (Switzerland), Beijing Opto-Electronics Technology Co. Ltd. (China), NuCare Medical Systems (South Korea), the University of Washington (United States), and National NanoFab Center (South Korea). For more information visit www.zecotek.com and follow @zecotek on Twitter. This press release may contain forward-looking statements that are based on management's expectations, estimates, projections and assumptions. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve certain risks and uncertainties, which are difficult to predict. Therefore, actual future results and trends may differ materially from what may have been stated. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Service Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of the content of this news release. If you would like to receive news from Zecotek in the future please visit the corporate website at www.zecotek.com.


News Article | November 18, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO UNITED STATES NEWSWIRE SERVICES OR FOR DISSEMENATION IN THE UNITED STATES. Zecotek Photonics Inc. (TSX VENTURE: ZMS) ( : W1I), a developer of leading-edge photonics technologies for medical, industrial and scientific markets, today announced that the Company has closed on the first tranche of the private placement, previously announced on November 7, 2016, by selling 1,000,000 units of the Company at a price of $0.30 per unit for gross proceeds of $300,000. Each unit of the Company consists of one common share and one common share purchase warrant. Each warrant of the first tranche entitles the holder to acquire one common share at an exercise price of $0.43 per common share at any time on or before November 18, 2018. The Company paid finder's fees on the tranche consisting of cash fees totalling $21,000 and issued 70,000 finder's warrants. Each finder's warrant entitles the Warrantholder to acquire one unit (the "Unit") at a price of Cdn$0.30 per Unit. Each Unit consists of one Common Share in the capital of the Company and one half of a share purchase warrant (the "Unit Warrant"). Each whole Unit Warrant shall entitle the Warrantholder to acquire one Common Share at a price of Cdn$0.43 per Common Share until November 18, 2018. All securities issued are subject to a four-month hold period expiring on March 19, 2017. Net proceeds from the funds raised will be used for general working capital purposes including the manufacture of products and strengthening and maintaining the Company's IP portfolio. All shares and warrants are subject to a four-month hold period. About Zecotek Zecotek Photonics Inc (TSX VENTURE: ZMS) ( : W1I) is a photonics technology company developing high-performance scintillation crystals, photo detectors, positron emission tomography scanning technologies, 3D auto-stereoscopic displays, 3D metal printing, and lasers for applications in medical, high-tech and industrial sectors. Founded in 2004, Zecotek operates three divisions: Imaging Systems, Optronics Systems and 3D Display Systems with labs located in Canada, Korea, Russia, Singapore and U.S.A. The management team is focused on building shareholder value by commercializing over 50 patented and patent pending novel photonic technologies directly and through strategic alliances, the European Organization for Nuclear Research (Switzerland), Beijing Opto-Electronics Technology Co. Ltd. (China), NuCare Medical Systems (South Korea), the University of Washington (United States), and National NanoFab Center (South Korea). For more information visit www.zecotek.com and follow @zecotek on Twitter. This press release may contain forward-looking statements that are based on management's expectations, estimates, projections and assumptions. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve certain risks and uncertainties, which are difficult to predict. Therefore, actual future results and trends may differ materially from what may have been stated. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Service Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of the content of this news release. If you would like to receive news from Zecotek in the future please visit the corporate website at www.zecotek.com.


News Article | December 14, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

SINGAPORE--(Marketwired - December 14, 2016) - Zecotek Photonics Inc. (TSX VENTURE: ZMS) ( : W1I) ( : ZMSPF), a developer of leading-edge photonics technologies for industrial, healthcare and scientific markets, is pleased to provide a corporate update on the Company's 3D Display Program. Zecotek has been approached by a major European automobile manufacturer to jointly integrate a 3D display system into a head-up display (HUD) and entertainment console, based on its patented 3D auto stereoscopic display technology. Zecotek's 3D display system is being sought by the automobile company because it does not require eye tracking and provides a deeper field of view. It also allows both the driver and the passenger to see pictures with the same relative primary resolution. "The key difference between Zecotek's patented 3D display system and existing HUD systems are the significantly more views in our 3D system compared to the two views in HUD displays requiring eye tracking," said Dr. A.F. Zerrouk, Chairman, President, and CEO of Zecotek Photonics Inc. "Eye tracking increases complexity and requires additional systems which impacts reliability and drives up costs. Our 3D display system has over 90 views which not only eliminates the need for eye tracking, it allows the driver and the passenger to have different displayed images without any compromise in the image resolution." One of the highlights of new generation automobiles is the innovative HUD. The HUD projects relevant trip data and alerts onto a high-quality slide-out display panel positioned directly in the driver's field of vision. The driver of the vehicle can press a button and a transparent display rises from its position behind the dashboard into the driver's primary field of vision. Speed, traffic signs, the activity of the assistance systems and other functions can be displayed on the 10 x 15cm high resolution surface. Navigation data or alerts can also be shown on the head-up display. Meanwhile, the driver's eyes remain on the road, with the on-screen information appearing to be approximately two meters in front of the vehicle. The advantage of the position of the display is that projecting alerts into the driver's immediate field of vision reduces reaction time. In addition, the driver's eyes do not need to refocus so often from far-field to near-field vision. Eye tracking is necessary in HUD display systems with only two views of a scene (one for each eye). As the observer moves his head around, it is necessary for the eye positions to be tracked so the HUD can display views at different positions. Without eye tracking when the observer moves they would no longer see the image. With eye tracking, each movement of the head is tracked and the view is recalculated so as to show the displayed scene from a different angle corresponding to the current observer's new point of view. With Zecotek's 3D display system, eye tracking is not necessary because a large number of views are simultaneously projected into the viewing zone, each corresponding to a particular view point within that zone. As a consequence, the observer will see a true 3D image as viewed from the chosen point anywhere within that viewing zone. This also means that the driver and the passenger are able to look at the same display and see their own images from their own perspective (e.g. an object left side seen by an observer standing to the left of the centre and the object's right side seen simultaneously by another observer standing to the right). Zecotek's 3D scientific team is working with the European automobile company as it runs tests on the 3D display system. Early results show that the 3D display is well suited for the application in the automobile. Any news on a possible agreement will be released in early 2017. At the same time Zecotek's 3D scientific team continues to work with another group to commercialize the 3D technology in Russia, as previously announced. New security protocols by the local government, meant that the 3D prototype needed further upgrades. These are now being conducted in Singapore in collaboration with local advanced software designers. The team continues to work jointly with the Russian company to meet the security requirements of the system and the commercialization objectives of the overall program. Zecotek Photonics Inc (TSX VENTURE: ZMS) ( : W1I) is a photonics technology company developing high-performance scintillation crystals, photo detectors, positron emission tomography scanning technologies, 3D auto-stereoscopic displays, 3D metal printing, and lasers for applications in medical, high-tech and industrial sectors. Founded in 2004, Zecotek operates three divisions: Imaging Systems, Optronics Systems and 3D Display Systems with labs located in Canada, Korea, Russia, Singapore and U.S.A. The management team is focused on building shareholder value by commercializing over 50 patented and patent pending novel photonic technologies directly and through strategic alliances, the European Organization for Nuclear Research (Switzerland), Beijing Opto-Electronics Technology Co. Ltd. (China), NuCare Medical Systems (South Korea), the University of Washington (United States), and National NanoFab Center (South Korea). For more information visit www.zecotek.com and follow @zecotek on Twitter. This press release may contain forward-looking statements that are based on management's expectations, estimates, projections and assumptions. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve certain risks and uncertainties, which are difficult to predict. Therefore, actual future results and trends may differ materially from what may have been stated. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Service Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of the content of this news release. If you would like to receive news from Zecotek in the future please visit the corporate website at www.zecotek.com.


News Article | April 14, 2016
Site: www.scientificcomputing.com

Compatible and sustainable software could revolutionize high-energy physics research at the Large Hadron Collider. The World Wide Web may have been invented at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), but it was raised and cultivated abroad. Now, a group of Large Hadron Collider physicists are looking outside academia to solve one of the biggest challenges in physics — creating a software framework that is sophisticated, sustainable and more compatible with rest of the world. “The software we used to build the LHC and perform our analyses is 20 years old,” says Peter Elmer, a physicist at Princeton University. “Technology evolves, so we have to ask, does our software still make sense today? Will it still do what we need 20 or 30 years from now?” Elmer is part of a new initiative funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) called the DIANA/HEP project, or Data Intensive ANAlysis for High Energy Physics. The DIANA project has one main goal: improve high-energy physics software by incorporating best practices and algorithms from other disciplines. “We want to discourage physics from re-inventing the wheel,” says Kyle Cranmer, a physicist at New York University and co-founder of the DIANA project. “There has been an explosion of high-quality scientific software in recent years. We want to start incorporating the best products into our research so that we can perform better science more efficiently.” DIANA is the first project explicitly funded to work on sustainable software, but is not alone in the endeavor to improve the way high energy physicists perform their analyses. In 2010 physicist Noel Dawe started the rootpy project, a community-driven initiative to improve the interface between ROOT and Python. “ROOT is the central tool that every physicist in my field uses,” says Dawe, who was a graduate student at Simon Fraser University when he started rootpy and is currently a fellow at the University of Melbourne. “It does quite a bit, but sometimes the best tool for the job is something else. I started rootpy as a side project when I was a graduate student, because I wanted to find ways to interface ROOT code with other tools.” Physicists began developing ROOT in the 1990s in the computing language C++. This software has evolved a lot since then, but has slowly become outdated, cumbersome and difficult to interface with new scientific tools written in languages such as Python or Julia. C++ has also evolved over the course of the last 20 years, but physicists must maintain a level of backward compatibility in order to preserve some of their older code. "We want to discourage physics from re-inventing the wheel." ~Kyle Cranmer “It’s in a bubble,” says Gilles Louppe, a machine learning expert working on the DIANA project. “It’s hard to get in and it’s hard to get out. It’s isolated from the rest of the world.” Improved interoperability will make it easier for physicists to benefit from global advancements in machine learning and data analysis. One trend that is spreading rapidly in the data science community is the computational notebook: a hybrid of analysis code, plots and narrative text. Project Jupyter is developing the technology that enables these notebooks. Two developers from the Jupyter team recently visited CERN to work with the ROOT team and further develop the ROOT version, ROOTbook. “Software and technology are changing so fast,” Cranmer says. “ROOTbooks represent a confluence of two communities and two technologies.” To perform tasks such as identifying and tagging particles, physicists use machine learning. They essentially train their LHC software to identify certain patterns in the data by feeding it thousands of simulations. According to Elmer, this task is like one big 'needle in a haystack' problem. “Imagine the book Where’s Waldo. But instead of just looking for one Waldo in one picture, there are many different kinds of Waldos and 100,000 pictures every second that need to be analyzed.” But what if these programs could learn to recognize patterns on their own with only minimal guidance? One small step outside the LHC is a thriving multi-billion dollar industry doing just that. “When I take a picture with my iPhone, it instantly interprets the thousands of pixels to identify people’s faces,” Elmer says. Companies like Facebook and Google are also incorporating more and more machine learning techniques to identify and catalog information so that it is instantly accessible anywhere in the world. Organizations such as Google, Facebook and Russia’s Yandex are releasing more and more tools as open source. Scientists in other disciplines, such as astronomy, are incorporating these tools into the way they do science. Cranmer hopes that high-energy physics will move to a model that makes it easier to take advantage of these new offerings as well. “New software can expand the reach of what we can do at the LHC,” Cranmer says. “The potential is hard to guess.”


News Article | December 19, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

Scientists at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, have used laser on trapped anti-atoms to see how the behavior of antimatter differs from that of regular matter. Antimatter is the opposite of normal matter having sub-atomic particles that have properties opposite those of normal matter. The nucleus of an atom, the fundamental piece of matter, consists of the positively charged proton and the neutrally charged neutron. The negatively charged electron orbits the nucleus. The electrical charge of antimatter particles known as antiparticles is reversed relative to matter. The anti-electrons, known as positrons, are positively charged while the antiprotons have negative charge. The Big Bang produced matter and antimatter in equal amounts but the universe is now consists mostly of matter and scientists do not know why. Antimatter is difficult to produce and study because when it comes in contact with ordinary matter, both get destroyed in a flash of light. Researchers who work on CERN's ALPHA experiment, however, were able to make the antimatter version of simple hydrogen atoms. Scientists trapped and hold these anti-atoms in a vacuum with strong magnetic field to keep them from getting annihilated. Now, scientists have come up with a way to study the properties of anti-hydrogen. Using a special laser, they were able to compare the light spectrum of matter and antimatter. The researchers blasted antimatter atoms with laser and then measured the light let off by the anti-atoms. They found no difference between the spectral lines of hydrogen and antihydrogen, which is consistent with the Standard Model of particle physics that predicts hydrogen and antihydrogen should have the same spectroscopic characteristics. The researchers hope that by comparing light from anti-atoms with that of regular atoms, they may eventually find out why antimatter became rare in the universe. It could also shed light on why in the early universe, there should have been equal amounts of matter and antimatter but the two were not completely destroyed by each other. "Something happened, some small asymmetry that led some of the matter to survive," said ALPHA collaboration spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst, "And we simply have no good idea that explains that right now." Researchers said this is the reason why they want to know if matter and antimatter truly obey the same laws of physics. "Using a laser to observe a transition in antihydrogen and comparing it to hydrogen to see if they obey the same laws of physics has always been a key goal of antimatter research," said Hangst. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


News Article | January 3, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

Scientists at the European Organization for Nuclear Research are currently exploring the feasibility of a 100 tera-electron-volt (TeV) particle accelerator through a new cooling design scheme that could slash the cost of cooling machines in the future. The 100 TeV collider will produce seven times the energy per collision that of the Large Hadron Collider, as well as maintain a circumference almost four times more and radiate a thousand times more power – a never-before-seen amount of heat. As cooling the future collider will be too expensive via current techniques, a new cooling scheme from CERN’s Roberto Cimino proposed substantially less energy use, and therefore more manageable costs. The 17-mile-long LHC is the biggest and most potent particle collider in the world today. It was created to explore the massive and unknown “dark universe.” A TeV, a unit of energy in particle physics, has about the energy of motion of a flying mosquito. The LHC is considered extraordinary because it squeezes energy into a space that is around a million times smaller than a mosquito. Studying extreme energy is deemed crucial in better understanding how the universe came to be post-Big Bang. University of Copenhagen researchers who are part of CERN’s study explained that the Universe was once composed of a dense hot mix of fundamental particles known as gluons and quarks – a state known as the quark-gluon-plasma. A millionth of a second after the Big Bang happened, the QGP began fusing together to form bulk matter as well as other particles. Researchers believed that the fusion emerged from a strong nuclear force enabling the binding of the quarks. CERN’s mission is to recreate the high temperature akin to the universe’s creation, when these fundamental particles were in a liquid-like form. Researchers will do this through colliding lead ions and then converting the kinetic energy of the collision into matter. But this ambition doesn’t come cheap. Using the LHC, accelerating the particle beam, which continually radiates photons and heat, is done by superconducting magnets. A copper tube that surrounds the beam assists in transporting this heat through photo absorption. However, an intricate refrigeration process is necessary to keep the magnets at 1.9 Kelvin – a heat-removal system that is prohibitively expensive or entailing a couple thousand dollars for every hour. Based on estimates, the weekly tab for a 100-TeV accelerator could reach millions in expenses. The proposal from Cimino and the team stated that they could coat the copper tube’s interior with a thin carbon layer reflecting all the radiation. “The surface structure of the carbon coating is designed so that the radiation, and the heat it carries, is transported away from colder regions towards periodically placed room-temperature absorbers, which are easier and cheaper to cool than the tube itself,” said the synopsis about the collider. According to the authors, who published their findings in the journal Physical Review Letters, this new design would slash the power consumption linked to cooling by a maximum of 20 percent, likely reducing the costs by half.


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: phys.org

In this undated picture publicly provided by the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, employees and scientists prepare the upgrading of one of the four main experiments on the world's biggest atom smasher in the hope it will help them discover previously unknown particles or physical properties at CERN near Geneva. Officials at CERN, said the operations the equivalent of a "heart transplant" for the CMS experiment. CMS was key to confirming the existence of the Higgs boson particle in 2012. (CERN via AP) Scientists are upgrading one of the four main experiments on the world's biggest atom smasher in hopes it will help them discover previously unknown particles or physical properties. Officials at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, or CERN, say the operation Thursday is the equivalent of a "heart transplant" for the CMS experiment. CMS was key to confirming the existence of the Higgs boson particle in 2012. The new, U.S.-built pixel detector is used to track particles as they hurtle through the 27-kilometer (17-mile) Large Hadron Collider beneath the Swiss-French border. CERN spokesman Arnaud Marsollier likened the $17-million detector to a huge 3D-camera capable of capturing 120 million pixels at 40 million frames a second. It replaces an older device that recorded about 68 million pixels. Explore further: Famed atom smasher gets twice the energy next year (Update)


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: hosted2.ap.org

(AP) — Scientists are upgrading one of the four main experiments on the world's biggest atom smasher in hopes it will help them discover previously unknown particles or physical properties. Officials at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, or CERN, say the operation Thursday is the equivalent of a "heart transplant" for the CMS experiment. CMS was key to confirming the existence of the Higgs boson particle in 2012. The new, U.S.-built pixel detector is used to track particles as they hurtle through the 27-kilometer (17-mile) Large Hadron Collider beneath the Swiss-French border. CERN spokesman Arnaud Marsollier likened the $17-million detector to a huge 3D-camera capable of capturing 120 million pixels at 40 million frames a second. It replaces an older device that recorded about 68 million pixels.


News Article | April 5, 2016
Site: motherboard.vice.com

Security is all about balance—keeping users and data safe has to sit alongside usability and efficiency. At CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research and home of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), Stefan Lueders has the daunting task of coordinating the security of systems while maintaining an environment of academic freedom. Lueders, a computer security officer, told Motherboard in a phone call that CERN has to keep tabs on around 40,000 bring-your-own-devices from professors, technicians, and other workers; academics and engineers also connect to systems remotely. The organization's two main data centres in Switzerland and Hungary have around 100,000 hard-drives and 13,000 servers in total. Then there's the LHC's computing grid, spread across North America, Europe, and Asia, which reprocesses data generated by the experiments. Control systems for equipment need to be secure as well, and CERN hosts around 10,000 websites. "The surface is vast,” Lueders said. And that surface is under constant poking and probing: threats include low level denial-of-service attacks, hackers scanning CERN’s web servers for vulnerabilities, and brute force attempts to break into systems. “This is permanently happening,” Lueders said. “On a daily basis, we're having infected computers and passwords which are lost through the cause of phishing, or being stolen outside in an internet cafe somewhere. This is stuff that is happening in any other organisation, in any other university. It's exactly the same problem,” Lueders said. CERN sees more advanced attacks a few times a year, Lueders added. Overall, hacking attempts don't seem to come from any particular part of the world. “In terms of who is attacking us: everybody,” Lueders said. “I do not see that we are more on the attack from the northern or from the southern hemisphere. I do not see that we're more under attack from country A or country B.” In the end, attack attribution doesn't matter all that much anyway, Lueders said, because they’re treated in the same way. “Same game, same business, and we deal with all of them alike,” he said. One way CERN has bolstered its defenses is by adopting white hat hackers to test the organization's limits. Once approved, university students get the green light to hack CERN systems in order to uncover vulnerabilities. CERN has also trained around 120 engineers, technicians, and programmers in penetration testing, Lueders added. But despite his job title, Lueders says he is not responsible for computer security at CERN. “I'm doing more or less the whole portfolio: I'm doing protection/prevention, I'm doing detection, and I'm doing response. However, I'm not responsible for computer security at CERN. I decline this responsibility,” he said. Instead, everyone has to patch and secure their own devices, and perhaps their own larger systems too, or delegate that task to somebody else if they don't feel capable. “If you are running a database, you are responsible for securing the database,” Lueders said. That also applies to web servers, control panels, and individual computers. Lueders and his team then scan the CERN networks constantly for signs of a compromised machine sending out spam, or visiting a malicious URL. This user will get a warning, and depending on the severity of the issue, be given a certain amount of time to get it under control. If they don't, there are consequences. “There are administrative measures which will kick in, and these can be everything: warnings, reprimands, losing your job,” Lueders said. When it comes to the trade-offs of security, Lueders’s priority is balancing secure systems with academic freedom. If he’s too cautious, and doesn’t allow CERN workers to use whatever programming language or software they need, users might become stifled. “I can, if I wanted, impose on everybody on this side to run a certain brand of computer, with a certain brand of operating system, and a certain software stack on top of that. No administrator rights; nothing. This I can do from a security perspective,” said Lueders. But this is not the balance that Lueders and CERN are after. “People are used to having a certain liberty to choose what technology they would like to employ, the hardware they would like to run, the operating system they would like to use, and the applications they would like to install.” If not, the vibrancy of CERN's community is under threat. “If we don't do this we will force them into a corner, and all the intelligence, all the creativity will be killed,” Lueders said. Everyone is a target for hackers. In Shut the Back Door, we ask organizations and institutions across the globe how they approach security.

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