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Bolla M.,Center Hospitalier University challon | Van Poppel H.,Universitair Ziekenhuis Gasthuisberg | Tombal B.,Cliniques Universitaires St Luc | Vekemans K.,Virga Jesse Ziekenhuis | And 14 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Background We report the long-term results of a trial of immediate postoperative irradiation versus a wait-and-see policy in patients with prostate cancer extending beyond the prostate, to confi rm whether previously reported progression-free survival was sustained. Methods This randomised, phase 3, controlled trial recruited patients aged 75 years or younger with untreated cT0-3 prostate cancer (WHO performance status 0 or 1) from 37 institutions across Europe. Eligible patients were randomly assigned centrally (1:1) to postoperative irradiation (60 Gy of conventional irradiation to the surgical bed for 6 weeks) or to a wait-and-see policy until biochemical progression (increase in prostate-specifi c antigen >0.2 μg/L confi rmed twice at least 2 weeks apart). We analysed the primary endpoint, biochemical progression-free survival, by intention to treat (two-sided test for diff erence at α=0.05, adjusted for one interim analysis) and did exploratory analyses of heterogeneity of eff ect. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00002511. Findings 1005 patients were randomly assigned to a wait-and-see policy (n=503) or postoperative irradiation (n=502) and were followed up for a median of 10·6 years (range 2 months to 16·6 years). Postoperative irradiation signifi cantly improved biochemical progression-free survival compared with the wait-and-see policy (198 [39·4%] of 502 patients in postoperative irradiation group vs 311 [61·8%] of 503 patients in wait-and-see group had biochemical or clinical progression or died; HR 0·49 [95% CI 0·41-0·59]; p<0·0001). Late adverse eff ects (any type of any grade) were more frequent in the postoperative irradiation group than in the wait-and-see group (10 year cumulative incidence 70·8% [66·6-75·0] vs 59·7% [55·3-64·1]; p=0.001). Interpretation Results at median follow-up of 10·6 years show that conventional postoperative irradiation signifi cantly improves biochemical progression-free survival and local control compared with a wait-and-see policy, supporting results at 5 year follow-up; however, improvements in clinical progression-free survival were not maintained. Exploratory analyses suggest that postoperative irradiation might improve clinical progression-free survival in patients younger than 70 years and in those with positive surgical margins, but could have a detrimental eff ect in patients aged 70 years or older.

Van Der Graaf W.T.A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Blay J.-Y.,Center Leon Berard | Chawla S.P.,Santa Monica Oncology Center | Kim D.-W.,Seoul National University | And 19 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Pazopanib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has single-agent activity in patients with advanced non-adipocytic soft-tissue sarcoma. We investigated the effect of pazopanib on progression-free survival in patients with metastatic non-adipocytic soft-tissue sarcoma after failure of standard chemotherapy. Methods This phase 3 study was done in 72 institutions, across 13 countries. Patients with angiogenesis inhibitornaive,metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma, progressing despite previous standard chemotherapy, were randomly assigned by an interactive voice randomisation system in a 2:1 ratio in permuted blocks (with block sizes of six) to receive either pazopanib 800 mg once daily or placebo, with no subsequent cross-over. Patients, investigators who gave the treatment, those assessing outcomes, and those who did the analysis were masked to the allocation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Efficacy analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00753688. Findings 372 patients were registered and 369 were randomly assigned to receive pazopanib (n=246) or placebo (n=123). Median progression-free survival was 4·6 months (95% CI 3·7-4·8) for pazopanib compared with 1·6 months (0·9-1·8) for placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·31, 95% CI 0·24-0·40; p<0·0001). Overall survival was 12·5 months (10·6-14·8) with pazopanib versus 10·7 months (8·7-12·8) with placebo (HR 0·86, 0·67-1·11; p=0·25). The most common adverse events were fatigue (60 in the placebo group [49%] vs 155 in the pazopanib group [65%]), diarrhoea (20 [16%] vs 138 [58%]), nausea (34 [28%] vs 129 [54%]), weight loss (25 [20%] vs 115 [48%]), and hypertension (8 [7%] vs 99 [41%]). The median relative dose intensity was 100% for placebo and 96% for pazopanib. Interpretation Pazopanib is a new treatment option for patients with metastatic non-adipocytic soft-tissue sarcoma after previous chemotherapy.

Taieb J.,University of Paris Descartes | Tabernero J.,University of Barcelona | Mini E.,University of Florence | Subtil F.,Francophone Federation of Digestive Oncology | And 17 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: Since the 1990s, fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy has significantly reduced the risk of tumour recurrence in patients with stage III colon cancer. We aimed to assess whether the addition of cetuximab to standard adjuvant oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin chemotherapy (FOLFOX4) in patients with stage III colon cancer improved disease-free survival (DFS). Methods: For this open-label, randomised phase 3 study done in nine European countries, we enrolled patients through an interactive voice response system to the central randomisation centre, with a central stratified permuted block randomisation procedure. We randomly assigned patieNts with resected (R0) stage III disease (1:1) to receive 12 cycles of FOLFOX4 twice a week with or without cetuximab. Patients were stratified by N-status (N1 vs N2), T-status (T1-3 vs T4), and obstruction or perforation status (no obstruction and no perforation vs obstruction or perforation or both). A protocol amendment (applied in June, 2008, after 2096 patients had been randomly assigned to treatment-restricted enrolment to patients with tumours wild-type at codons 12 and 13 in exon 2 of the KRAS gene (KRAS exon 2 wild-type). The primary endpoint was DFS. Analysis was intention to treat in all patients with KRAS exon 2 wild-type tumours. The study is registered at EudraCT, number 2005-003463-23. Findings: Between Dec 22, 2005, and Nov 5, 2009, 2559 patients from 340 sites in Europe were randomly assigned. Of these patients, 1602 had KRAS exon 2 wild-type tumours (intention-to-treat population), 791 in the FOLFOX4 plus cetuximab group and 811 in the FOLFOX4 group. Median follow-up was 3·3 years (IQR 3·2-3·4). In the experimental and control groups, DFS was similar in the intention-to-treat population (hazard ratio [HR] 1·05; 95% CI 0·85-1·29; p=0·66), and in patients with KRAS exon 2/. BRAF wild-type (n=984, HR 0·99; 95% CI 0·76-1·28) or KRAS exon 2-mutated tumours (n=742, HR 1·06; 95% CI 0·82-1·37). We noted heterogeneous responses to the addition of cetuximab in preplanned subgroup analyses. Grade 3 or 4 acne-like rash (in 209 of 785 patients [27%] vs four of 805 [<1%]), diarrhoea (113 [14%] vs 70 [9%]), mucositis (63 [8%] vs 10 [1%]), and infusion-related reactions (55 [7%] vs 30 [4%]) were more frequent in patients treated with FOLFOX4 plus cetuximab than in those patients who received FOLFOX4 alone. Interpretation: The addition of cetuximab to FOLFOX4 did not improve DFS compared with FOLFOX4 alone in patients with KRAS exon 2 wild-type resected stage III colon cancer. This trial cannot conclude on the benefit of cetuximab in the studied population, but the heterogeneity of response suggests that further investigation of the role of FOLFOX4 plus cetuximab in specific patient subgroups is warranted. Funding: Fédération Francophone de Cancérologie Digestive (FFCD), Merck KGaA, and Sanofi-Aventis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Rustin G.J.S.,Mount Vernon Cancer Center | Van Der Burg M.E.L.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Griffin C.L.,Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit | Guthrie D.,Royal Infirmary | And 8 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2010

Background Serum CA125 concentration often rises several months before clinical or symptomatic relapse in women with ovarian cancer. In the MRC OV05/EORTC 55955 collaborative trial, we aimed to establish the benefits of early treatment on the basis of increased CA125 concentrations compared with delayed treatment on the basis of clinical recurrence. Methods Women with ovarian cancer in complete remission after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy and a normal CA125 concentration were registered for this randomised controlled trial. Clinical examination and CA125 measurement were done every 3 months. Patients and investigators were masked to CA125 results, which were monitored by coordinating centres. If CA125 concentration exceeded twice the upper limit of normal, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by minimisation to early or delayed chemotherapy. Patients and clinical sites were informed of allocation to early treatment, and treatment was started as soon as possible within 28 days of the increased CA125 measurement. Patients assigned to delayed treatment continued masked CA125 measurements, with treatment commencing at clinical or symptomatic relapse. All patients were treated according to standard local practice. The primary outcome was overall survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, ISRCTN87786644. Findings 1442 patients were registered for the trial, of whom 529 were randomly assigned to treatment groups and were included in our analysis (265 early, 264 delayed). With a median follow-up of 56·9 months (IQR 37·4-81·8) from randomisation and 370 deaths (186 early, 184 delayed), there was no evidence of a difference in overall survival between early and delayed treatment (HR 0·98, 95 CI 0·80-1·20, p=0·85). Median survival from randomisation was 25·7 months (95 CI 23·0-27·9) for patients on early treatment and 27·1 months (22·8-30·9) for those on delayed treatment. Interpretation Our findings showed no evidence of a survival benefit with early treatment of relapse on the basis of a raised CA125 concentration alone, and therefore the value of routine measurement of CA125 in the follow-up of patients with ovarian cancer who attain a complete response after first-line treatment is not proven. Funding UK Medical Research Council and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Bolla M.,University Hospital | Van Tienhoven G.,Academisch Medisch Centrum | Warde P.,Princess Margaret Hospital | Dubois J.B.,Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Val Daurelle | And 12 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2010

Background: We did a randomised phase 3 trial assessing the benefit of addition of long-term androgen suppression with a luteinising-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist to external irradiation in patients with prostate cancer with high metastatic risk. In this report, we present the 10-year results. Methods: For this open-label randomised trial, eligible patients were younger than 80 years and had newly diagnosed histologically proven T1-2 prostatic adenocarcinoma with WHO histological grade 3 or T3-4 prostatic adenocarcinoma of any histological grade, and a WHO performance status of 0-2. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive radiotherapy alone or radiotherapy plus immediate androgen suppression. Treatment allocation was open label and used a minimisation algorithm with institution, clinical stage of the disease, results of pelvic-lymph-node dissection, and irradiation fields extension as minimisation factors. Patients were irradiated externally, once a day, 5 days a week, for 7 weeks to a total dose of 50 Gy to the whole pelvis, with an additional 20 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The LHRH agonist, goserelin acetate (3·6 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks), was started on the first day of irradiation and continued for 3 years; cyproterone acetate (50 mg orally three times a day) was given for 1 month starting a week before the first goserelin injection. The primary endpoint was clinical disease-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00849082. Findings: Between May 22, 1987, and Oct 31, 1995, 415 patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups and were included in the analysis (208 radiotherapy alone, 207 combined treatment). Median follow-up was 9·1 years (IQR 5·1-12·6). 10-year clinical disease-free survival was 22·7% (95% CI 16·3-29·7) in the radiotherapy-alone group and 47·7% (39·0-56·0) in the combined treatment group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·42, 95% CI 0·33-0·55, p<0·0001). 10-year overall survival was 39·8% (95% CI 31·9-47·5) in patients receiving radiotherapy alone and 58·1% (49·2-66·0) in those allocated combined treatment (HR 0·60, 95% CI 0·45-0·80, p=0·0004), and 10-year prostate-cancer mortality was 30·4% (95% CI 23·2-37·5) and 10·3% (5·1-15·4), respectively (HR 0·38, 95% CI 0·24-0·60, p<0·0001). No significant difference in cardiovascular mortality was noted between treatment groups both in patients who had cardiovascular problems at study entry (eight of 53 patients in the combined treatment group had a cardiovascular-related cause of death vs 11 of 63 in the radiotherapy group; p=0·60) and in those who did not (14 of 154 vs six of 145; p=0·25). Two fractures were reported in patients allocated combined treatment. Interpretation: In patients with prostate cancer with high metastatic risk, immediate androgen suppression with an LHRH agonist given during and for 3 years after external irradiation improves 10-year disease-free and overall survival without increasing late cardiovascular toxicity. Funding: AstraZeneca; Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer (France), through the EORTC Charitable Trust. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Gore M.E.,Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Trust | Griffin C.L.,Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit | Hancock B.,Weston Park Hospital | Patel P.M.,University of Nottingham | And 10 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2010

Background: In metastatic renal cell carcinoma combinations of interferon alfa-2a, interleukin-2, and fluorouracil produce higher response rates and longer progression-free survival than do single agents. We aimed to compare overall survival in patients receiving combination treatment or interferon alfa-2a. Methods: RE04/30012 was an open-label randomised trial undertaken in 50 centres across eight countries. 1006 treatment-naive patients diagnosed with advanced metastatic renal cell carcinoma were randomly allocated (1 to 1) by minimisation to receive interferon alfa-2a alone or combination therapy with interferon alfa-2a, interleukin-2, and fluorouracil. Treatment was not masked. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Treatment groups were compared with a non-stratified log-rank test. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN 46518965. Findings: 502 patients were randomly assigned to receive interferon alfa-2a and 504 to receive combined treatment. Median follow-up was 37·2 months (24·8-52·3). Median overall survival was 18·8 months (17·0-23·2) for patients receiving interferon alfa-2a versus 18·6 months (16·5-20·6) for those receiving combination therapy. Overall survival did not differ between the two groups (hazard ratio 1·05 [95% CI 0·90-1·21], p=0·55; absolute difference 0·3% (-5·1 to 5·6) at 1 year and 2·7% (-8·2 to 2·9) at 3 years). Serious adverse events were reported in 113 (23%) patients receiving interferon alfa-2a and 131 (26%) of those receiving combined treatment. Interpretation: Although combination therapy does not improve overall or progression-free survival compared with interferon alfa-2a alone, immunotherapy might still have a role because it can produce remissions that are of clinically relevant length in some patients. Identification of patients who will benefit from immunotherapy is crucial. Funding: UK Medical Research Council. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Roupret M.,Pitie Salpetrire Hospital | Roupret M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Zigeuner R.,Medical University of Graz | Palou J.,Fundacio Puigvert | And 6 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2011

Context: The European Association of Urology (EAU) Guideline Group for urothelial cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UUT-UCC) has prepared new guidelines to aid clinicians in assessing the current evidence-based management of UUT-UCC and to incorporate present recommendations into daily clinical practice. Objective: This paper provides a brief overview of the EAU guidelines on UUT-UCC as an aid to clinicians in their daily practice. Evidence acquisition: The recommendations provided in the current guidelines are based on a thorough review of available UUT-UCC guidelines and papers identified using a systematic search of Medline. Data on urothelial malignancies and UUT-UCCs in the literature were searched using Medline with the following keywords: urinary tract cancer, urothelial carcinomas, upper urinary tract, carcinoma, transitional cell, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder cancer, chemotherapy, nephroureterectomy, adjuvant treatment, neoadjuvant treatment, recurrence, risk factors, and survival. A panel of experts weighted the references. Evidence synthesis: There is a lack of data in the current literature to provide strong recommendations due to the rarity of the disease. A number of recent multicentre studies are now available, whereas earlier publications were based only on limited populations. However, most of these studies have been retrospective analyses. The TNM classification 2009 is recommended. Recommendations are given for diagnosis as well as for radical and conservative treatment; prognostic factors are also discussed. Recommendations are provided for patient follow-up after different therapeutic options. Conclusions: These guidelines contain information for the diagnosis and treatment of individual patients according to a current standardised approach. When determining the optimal treatment regimen, physicians must take into account each individual patient's specific clinical characteristics with regard to renal function including medical comorbidities; tumour location, grade and stage; and molecular marker status. © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Babjuk M.,Charles University | Oosterlinck W.,Ghent University | Sylvester R.,European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Headquarters | Kaasinen E.,Hyvinkaa Hospital | And 3 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2011

Context and objective: To present the 2011 European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Evidence acquisition: Literature published between 2004 and 2010 on the diagnosis and treatment of NMIBC was systematically reviewed. Previous guidelines were updated, and the level of evidence (LE) and grade of recommendation (GR) were assigned. Evidence synthesis: Tumours staged as Ta, T1, or carcinoma in situ (CIS) are grouped as NMIBC. Diagnosis depends on cystoscopy and histologic evaluation of the tissue obtained by transurethral resection (TUR) in papillary tumours or by multiple bladder biopsies in CIS. In papillary lesions, a complete TUR is essential for the patient's prognosis. Where the initial resection is incomplete or where a high-grade or T1 tumour is detected, a second TUR should be performed within 2-6 wk. In papillary tumours, the risks of both recurrence and progression may be estimated for individual patients using the scoring system and risk tables. The stratification of patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups - separately for recurrence and progression - is pivotal to recommending adjuvant treatment. For patients with a low risk of tumour recurrence and progression, one immediate instillation of chemotherapy is recommended. Patients with an intermediate or high risk of recurrence and an intermediate risk of progression should receive one immediate instillation of chemotherapy followed by a minimum of 1 yr of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intravesical immunotherapy or further instillations of chemotherapy. Papillary tumours with a high risk of progression and CIS should receive intravesical BCG for 1 yr. Cystectomy may be offered to the highest risk patients, and it is at least recommended in BCG failure patients. The long version of the guidelines is available from the EAU Web site (www.uroweb.org). Conclusions: These abridged EAU guidelines present updated information on the diagnosis and treatment of NMIBC for incorporation into clinical practice. © 2011 European Association of Urology.

Boormans J.L.,Erasmus Medical Center | Hermans K.G.,Erasmus Medical Center | Made A.C.J.Z.-v.d.,Erasmus Medical Center | van Leenders G.J.H.L.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2010

Background: Fusion of the androgen-regulated gene transmembrane protease, serine 2, TMPRSS2, to the v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian), ERG, of the erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) family is the most common genetic alteration in prostate cancer (PCa). Objective: To determine whether expression of androgen-regulated TMPRSS2-ERG predicts response to endocrine treatment in hormone-naïve, node-positive PCa. Design, setting, and participants: Eighty-five patients with histologically confirmed, node-positive PCa who were without treatment at the moment of lymph node dissection were analysed. RNA was isolated from the paraffin-embedded lymph node metastases and complementary DNA (cDNA) was made. The quality of cDNA was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the expression of the housekeeping gene hydroxymethylbilane synthase, HMBS (formerly PBGD). TMPRSS2-ERG expression was analysed by PCR using a forward primer in TMPRSS2 exon 1 and a reverse primer in ERG exon 4. Measurements: The primary end point was time from start of endocrine therapy to the occurrence of three consecutive rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) that were at least 2 wk apart and resulted in two 50% increases over the PSA nadir. Secondary end points were time to PSA nadir after start of endocrine treatment and cancer-specific and overall survival. Results and limitations: TMPRSS2-ERG was expressed in 59% of the 71 patients who could be analysed. Median duration of response to endocrine therapy was 20.9 mo versus 24.1 mo for gene fusion-positive versus gene fusion-negative patients (95% confidence intervals: 18.6-23.1 vs 18.9-29.4, p = 0.70). Furthermore, no significant differences were seen between the two groups for the secondary end points. Conclusions: Expression of TMPRSS2-ERG is frequent in lymph node metastases of patients with untreated PCa; however, expression of this androgen-regulated fusion gene did not correspond with duration of response to endocrine therapy. Our results suggest that expression of TMPRSS2-ERG is not a candidate marker to select for metastatic PCa patients who will benefit more from endocrine treatment. © 2009 European Association of Urology.

Palou J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Sylvester R.J.,European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Headquarters | Faba O.R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Parada R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 3 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2012

Background: Controversy exists over the most important prognostic factors in T1 high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Objective: Evaluate prognostic factors for recurrence, progression, and disease-specific mortality after adjuvant intravesical BCG immunotherapy in patients with T1G3 NMIBC and long-term follow-up. Design, setting, and participants: A single-institution retrospective analysis of 146 patients with primary stage T1G3 NMIBC. Intervention: All patients were treated with complete transurethral resection (TUR) plus multiple bladder biopsies that included the prostatic urethra. No second TUR was done. Patients underwent an induction course of intravesical BCG (Connaught strain, 81 mg) without maintenance therapy. Measurements: The variables analysed for time to recurrence, progression, and death due to bladder cancer (BCa) were gender, age, tumour multiplicity, diameter, aspect, substaging, concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS), and CIS in the prostatic urethra. Cox regression models were used to assess the univariate and multivariate prognostic importance of these factors and estimate hazard ratios (HRs). Time-to-event distributions were estimated using cumulative incidence functions. Results and limitations: The median follow-up was 8.7 yr. Sixty-five patients (44.5%) had recurrence, 25 patients (17.1%) had progression, and 18 patients (12.3%) died because of BCa. Female gender and presence of CIS in the prostatic urethra were associated with an increased risk of recurrence (p = 0.0003, HR: 2.53), progression (p = 0.001, HR: 3.59), and death due to BCa (p = 0.004, HR: 3.53). Conclusions: In primary T1G3 bladder tumours treated with induction BCG, female gender or having CIS in the prostatic urethra were the only prognostic factors for time to recurrence, progression, and disease-related mortality. It is very important to perform a biopsy of the prostatic urethra in patients with primary high-grade NMIBC as a first step to obtain this prognostic information. © 2011 European Association of Urology.

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