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Kasper B.,University of Mannheim | Ouali M.,European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Data Center | Van Glabbeke M.,European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Data Center | Blay J.-Y.,Center Leon Berard | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer

Background: We conducted a retrospective study, pooling data from two clinical trials in high risk soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients, with the objective of comparing two different age groups: 15-29 years (adolescents and young adults (AYA) population) and ≥30 years. The aim was to determine prognostic factors for the AYA population. Methods: Patients selected for analysis were treated in two randomised trials of adjuvant chemotherapy in STS (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 62771 and 62931). A total of 793 patients were included with a median follow-up (FU) of 8.74 years (AYA population: n = 161, median FU 9.46 years; patients ≥30 years: n = 632, median FU 8.62 years). Study endpoints were overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS). The variables of the multivariate analysis were gender, subtype and grade, tumour size and localisation (limb versus other), absence or presence of local recurrence and treatment (control arm versus adjuvant chemotherapy). Results: Patients' characteristics were globally similar with two exceptions, histological subtype (p = 0.0043) and tumour size (p <.0001). The commonest sarcoma subtype in the AYA population was synovial sarcoma (29%), whereas leiomyosarcoma (18%), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH, presently being termed undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), 16%) and liposarcoma (15%) were more frequent in patients ≥30 years. For OS, independent favourable prognostic factors were low grade and small tumour size for both groups; radical resection and MFH or liposarcoma subtype were favourable factors for patients ≥30 years only. For RFS, favourable prognostic factors were small tumour size and low grade for both groups; tumour location in the extremities was a favourable factor for the AYA population only, whereas radical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy treatment were favourable factors for patients ≥30 years only. Conclusions: Significant differences could be found concerning prognostic factors between the AYA population and older patients. Interestingly, adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with improved RFS only in patients ≥30 years. The results may have further implications for the treatment of STS patients in different age groups, as well as the design of future clinical trials. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Bekema H.J.,University of Groningen | Maclennan S.,University of Aberdeen | Imamura M.,University of Aberdeen | Lam T.B.L.,University of Aberdeen | And 12 more authors.
European Urology

Context Controversy remains over whether adrenalectomy and lymph node dissection (LND) should be performed concomitantly with radical nephrectomy (RN) for locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cT3-T4N0M0. Objective To systematically review all relevant literature comparing oncologic, perioperative, and quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes for locally advanced RCC managed with RN with or without concomitant adrenalectomy or LND. Evidence acquisition Relevant databases were searched up to August 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and comparative studies were included. Outcome measures were overall survival, QoL, and perioperative adverse effects. Risks of bias (RoB) were assessed using Cochrane RoB tools. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Evidence synthesis A total of 3658 abstracts and 252 full-text articles were screened. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria: six LNDs (one RCT and five nonrandomised studies [NRSs]) and two adrenalectomies (two NRSs). RoB was high across the evidence base, and the quality of evidence from outcomes ranged from moderate to very low. Meta-analyses were not undertaken because of diverse study designs and data heterogeneity. There was no significant difference in survival between the groups, even though 5-yr overall survival appears better for the RN plus LND group compared with the no-LND group in one randomised study. There was no evidence of a difference in adverse events between the RN plus LND and no-LND groups. No studies reported QoL outcomes. There was no evidence of an oncologic difference between the RN with adrenalectomy and RN without adrenalectomy groups. No studies reported adverse events or QoL outcomes. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to draw any conclusions on oncologic outcomes for patients having concomitant LND or ipsilateral adrenalectomy compared with patients having RN alone for cT3-T4N0M0 RCC. The quality of evidence is generally low and the results potentially biased. Further research in adequately powered trials is needed to answer these questions. © 2013 European Association of Urology. Source

Gelderblom H.,Leiden University | Jinks R.C.,Cancer Group | Sydes M.,Cancer Group | Bramwell V.H.C.,Tom Baker Cancer Center | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer

Background: Recurrence after osteosarcoma usually leads to death; thus prognostic factors for survival are of great importance. Methods: Between 1983 and 2002, the European Osteosarcoma Intergroup accrued 1067 patients to 3 randomized controlled trials of pre- and post-operative chemotherapy for patients with resectable non-metastatic high-grade osteosarcoma of the extremity. Control treatment in all trials was doxorubicin 75 mg/m 2 and cisplatin 100 mg/m 2. The comparators were additional high-dose methotrexate (BO02), T10-based multi-drug regimen (BO03) and G-CSF intensified-DC (BO06). Post-recurrence survival (PRS) was investigated on combined data with standard survival analysis methods. Results: Median recurrence-free survival was 31 months; 8 recurrences were reported more than 5 years after the diagnosis. In 564 patients with a recurrence (median 13 months post-randomisation), there was no difference in post-relapse survival between treatment arms. Patients whose disease recurred within 2 years after randomization had a worse prognosis than those recurring after 2 years. Patients with good initial histological response to pre-operative chemotherapy had a better overall survival after recurrence than poor responders. Local relapse was more often reported after limb-saving procedures (2 versus 8%; amputation versus limb-saving), independent of the primary tumour site. Site of first recurrence (local 20%, lung 62%, "other" 19%) affected survival, as patients recurring with non-lung distant metastases only or any combination of local relapse, lung metastases and non-lung metastases (=group "other") had significantly worse overall survival (local 39%, lung 19%, "other" 9% at 5 years). Conclusions: These data describing a large series of patients with recurrent extremity osteosarcoma confirm the relationship between early recurrence and poor survival. There was better PRS in patients after good histological response to pre-operative chemotherapy, or with local-only recurrence. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

French P.J.,Erasmus Medical Center | Sanson M.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere | Idbaih A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Wesseling P.,University of Amsterdam | And 5 more authors.

Background Histopathological diagnosis of diffuse gliomas is subject to interobserver variation and correlates modestly with major prognostic and predictive molecular abnormalities. We investigated a series of patients with locally diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors included in the EORTC phase III trial 26951 on procarbazine/lomustine/vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy to explore the diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive value of targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) in diffuse glioma and to assess the prognostic impact of FUBP1 and CIC mutations. Methods Mostly formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples were tested with targeted NGS for mutations in ATRX, TP53, IDH1, IDH2, CIC, FUBP1, PI3KC, TERT, EGFR, H3F3A, BRAF, PTEN, and NOTCH and for copy number alterations of chromosomes 1p, 19q, 10q, and 7. TERT mutations were also assessed, with PCR. Results Material was available from 139 cases, in 6 of which results were uninformative. One hundred twenty-six tumors could be classified: 20 as type II (IDH mutation [mut], "astrocytoma"), 49 as type I (1p/19q codeletion, "oligodendroglioma"), 55 as type III (7+/10q- or TERTmut and 1p/19q intact, "glioblastoma"), and 2 as childhood glioblastoma (H3F3Amut), leaving 7 unclassified (total 91% classified). Molecular classification was of clear prognostic significance and correlated better with outcome than did classical histopathology. In 1p/19q codeleted tumors, outcome was not affected by CIC and FUBP1 mutations. MGMT promoter methylation remained the most predictive factor for survival benefit of PCV chemotherapy. Conclusion Targeted NGS allows a clinically relevant classification of diffuse glioma into groups with very different outcomes. The diagnosis of diffuse glioma should be primarily based on a molecular classification, with the histopathological grade added to it. Future discussion should primarily aim at establishing the minimum requirements for molecular classification of diffuse glioma. © 2015 The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com. Source

Bellera C.A.,Institute Claudius Regaud | Bellera C.A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Penel N.,Center Oscar Lambret | Ouali M.,European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Data Center | And 45 more authors.
Annals of Oncology

Background: The use of potential surrogate end points for overall survival, such as disease-free survival (DFS) or timeto-treatment failure (TTF) is increasingly common in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in cancer. However, the definition of time-to-event (TTE) end points is rarely precise and lacks uniformity across trials. End point definition can impact trial results by affecting estimation of treatment effect and statistical power. The DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End points in CANcer trials) aims to provide recommendations for definitions of TTE end points. We report guidelines for RCT in sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Methods: We first carried out a literature review to identify TTE end points (primary or secondary) reported in publications of RCT. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts proposed recommendations for the definitions of these end points. Recommendations were developed through a validated consensus method formalizing the degree of agreement among experts. Results: Recommended guidelines for the definition of TTE end points commonly used in RCT for sarcomas and GIST are provided for adjuvant and metastatic settings, including DFS, TTF, time to progression and others. Conclusion: Use of standardized definitions should facilitate comparison of trials' results, and improve the quality of trial design and reporting. These guidelines could be of particular interest to research scientists involved in the design, conduct, reporting or assessment of RCT such as investigators, statisticians, reviewers, editors or regulatory authorities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

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