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Breugom A.J.,Leiden University | Swets M.,Leiden University | Bosset J.-F.,Besancon University Hospital njoz | Collette L.,European Organisation for Research | And 9 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology

Background: The role of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with rectal cancer after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and surgery is uncertain. We did a meta-analysis of individual patient data to compare adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for patients with rectal cancer. Methods: We searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, and conference abstracts to identify European randomised, controlled, phase 3 trials comparing observation with adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and surgery for patients with non-metastatic rectal cancer. The primary endpoint of interest was overall survival. Findings: We analysed data from four eligible trials, including data from 1196 patients with (y)pTNM stage II or III disease, who had an R0 resection, had a low anterior resection or an abdominoperineal resection, and had a tumour located within 15 cm of the anal verge. We found no significant differences in overall survival between patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy and those who underwent observation (hazard ratio [HR] 0.97, 95% CI 0.81-1.17; p=0.775); there were no significant differences in overall survival in subgroup analyses. Overall, adjuvant chemotherapy did not significantly improve disease-free survival (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.77-1.07; p=0.230) or distant recurrences (0.94, 0.78-1.14; p=0.523) compared with observation. However, in subgroup analyses, patients with a tumour 10-15 cm from the anal verge had improved disease-free survival (0.59, 0.40-0.85; p=0.005, pinteraction=0.107) and fewer distant recurrences (0.61, 0.40-0.94; p=0.025, pinteraction=0.126) when treated with adjuvant chemotherapy compared with patients undergoing observation. Interpretation: Overall, adjuvant fluorouracil-based chemotherapy did not improve overall survival, disease-free survival, or distant recurrences. However, adjuvant chemotherapy might benefit patients with a tumour 10-15 cm from the anal verge in terms of disease-free survival and distant recurrence. Further studies of preoperative and postoperative treatment for this subgroup of patients are warranted. Funding: None. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

De Wit R.,Erasmus Medical Center | Skoneczna I.,Marie Sklodowska Curie Memorial Cancer Center | Daugaard G.,Rigshospital | De Santis M.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology

Purpose: To compare the efficacy of four cycles of paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) to four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in previously untreated patients with intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC). Patients and Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either T-BEP or standard BEP. Patients assigned to the T-BEP group received paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 in a 3-hour infusion. Patients who were administered T-BEP received primary granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) prophylaxis. The study was designed as a randomized open-label phase II/III study. To show a 10% improvement in 3-year progression-free survival (PFS), the study aimed to recruit 498 patients but closed with 337 patients as a result of slow accrual. Results: Accrual was from November 1998 to April 2009. A total of 169patients were administered BEP, and 168 patients were administered T-BEP. Thirteen patients in both arms were ineligible, mainly as a result of a good prognosis of GCC (eight patients administered BEP; six patients administered T-BEP) or a poor prognosis of GCC (one patient administered BEP; four patients administered T-BEP). PFS at 3 years (intent to treat) was 79.4% in the T-BEP group versus 71.1% in the BEP group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.73; CI, 0.47 to 1.13; P [log-rank test] = 0.153). PFS at 3 years in all eligible patients was 82.7% versus 70.1%, respectively (HR, 0.60; CI: 0.37 to 0.97) and was statistically significant (P = 0.03). Overall survival was not statistically different. Conclusion: T-BEP administered with G-CSF seems to be a safe and effective treatment regimen for patients with intermediate-prognosis GCC. However, the study recruited a smaller-than-planned number of patients and included 7.7% ineligible patients. The primary analysis of the trial could not demonstrate statistical superiority of T-BEP for PFS. When ineligible patients were excluded, the analysis of all eligible patients demonstrated a 12% superior 3-year PFS with T-BEP, which was statistically significant. © 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source

Busse A.,Charite CBF | Rapion J.,European Organisation for Research | Fusi A.,Charite CBF | Suciu S.,European Organisation for Research | And 10 more authors.
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

We analysed mRNA levels of interferon response genes (ISG15, STAT1, CXCL10) of inhibitors of the JAK/STAT pathway (STAT3, SOCS1, SOCS3) and of cytokines (TNFα, IL10, TGFß1) in peripheral blood of 91 stage III melanoma patients enrolled in EORTC 18991 trial to find biomarkers indicative for disease stage and predictive for efficacy of pegylated interferon alpha-2b (PEG-IFNα-2b) therapy. mRNA levels were analysed at baseline and after 6 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to estimate the prognostic and predictive role of mRNA levels for distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and relapse-free survival (RFS). Compared to healthy controls, melanoma patients showed significantly higher TGFβ1 mRNA levels. In a multivariate model, increasing SOCS1 and SOCS3 mRNA levels were associated with worse RFS (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively) and DMFS (P = 0.05 and P = 0.05, respectively) due to negative correlation between, respectively, SOCS1/SOCS3 mRNA levels and ulceration or Breslow thickness. No impact of PEG-IFNα-2b on mRNA levels was observed except for ISG15 mRNA levels, which decreased in the treatment arm (P = 0.001). It seems that patients with a decrease >60 % of ISG15 mRNA levels during 6 months PEG-IFNα-2b had inferior outcome. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Chiu L.,Odette Cancer Center | Chiu N.,Odette Cancer Center | Chow E.,Odette Cancer Center | Cella D.,Northwestern University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Palliative Medicine

Objective: Quality of life (QoL) assessment questionnaires can be burdensome to advanced cancer patients, thus necessitating the need for shorter assessment instruments than traditionally available. We compare three shortened QoL questionnaires in regards to their characteristics, validity, and reliability. Methods: A literature search was conducted to identify studies that employed or discussed three abridged QoL questionnaires: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core 15-Palliative Care (EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General-7 (FACT-G7), and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative Care-14 (FACIT-PAL-14). Articles that discussed questionnaire length, intended use, scoring procedure, and validation were included. Results: The 7-item FACT-G7 is the shortest instrument, whereas the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL and the FACIT-PAL-14 contain 14 and 15 items, respectively. All three questionnaires have similar recall period, item organization, and subscale components. Designed as core questionnaires, all three maintain content and concurrent validity of their unabridged original questionnaires. Both the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL and the FACT-G7 demonstrate good internal consistency and reliability, with Cronbach's α ≥0.7 deemed acceptable. The developmental study for the FACIT-PAL-14 was published in 2013 and subsequent validation studies are not yet available. Conclusion: The EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL and the FACT-G7 were found to be reliable and appropriate for assessing health-related QoL issues - the former for palliative cancer patients and the latter for advanced cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Conceptually, the FACIT-PAL-14 holds promise to cover social and emotional support issues that are not completely addressed by the other two questionnaires; however, further validation is needed. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014. Source

Purpose: To compare low-dose decitabine to best supportive care (BSC) in higher-risk patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) age 60 years or older and ineligible for intensive chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Two-hundred thirty-three patients (median age, 70 years; range, 60 to 90 years) were enrolled; 53% had poor-risk cytogenetics, and the median MDS duration at random assignment was 3 months. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Decitabine (15 mg/m2) was given intravenously over 4 hours three times a day for 3 days in 6-week cycles. Results: OS prolongation with decitabine versus BSC was not statistically significant (median OS, 10.1 v 8.5 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.17; two-sided, log-rank P = .38). Progression-free survival (PFS), but not acute myeloid leukemia (AML) -free survival (AMLFS), was significantly prolonged with decitabine versus BSC (median PFS, 6.6 v 3.0 months, respectively; HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.88; P = .004; median AMLFS, 8.8 v 6.1 months, respectively; HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.12; P = .24). AML transformation was significantly (P = .036) reduced at 1 year (from 33% with BSC to 22% with decitabine). Multivariate analyses indicated that patients with short MDS duration had worse outcomes. Best responses with decitabine versus BSC, respectively, were as follows: complete response (13% v 0%), partial response (6% v 0%), hematologic improvement (15% v 2%), stable disease (14% v 22%), progressive disease (29% v 68%), hypoplasia (14% v 0%), and inevaluable (8% v 8%). Grade 3 to 4 febrile neutropenia occurred in 25% of patients on decitabine versus 7% of patients on BSC; grade 3 to 4 infections occurred in 57% and 52% of patients on decitabine and BSC, respectively. Decitabine treatment was associated with improvements in patient-reported quality-of-life (QOL) parameters. Conclusion: Decitabine administered in 6-week cycles is active in older patients with higher-risk MDS, resulting in improvements of OS and AMLFS (nonsignificant), of PFS and AML transformation (significant), and of QOL. Short MDS duration was an independent adverse prognosticator. © 2011 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source

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