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Haj F.G.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Haj F.G.,University of California at Davis | Sabet O.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology | Kinkhabwala A.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a ubiquitously expressed PTP that is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). PTP1B dephosphorylates activated receptor tyrosine kinases after endocytosis, as they transit past the ER. However, PTP1B also can access some plasma membrane (PM)-bound substrates at points of cell-cell contact. To explore how PTP1B interacts with such substrates, we utilized quantitative cellular imaging approaches and mathematical modeling of protein mobility. We find that the ER network comes in close proximity to the PM at apparently specialized regions of cell-cell contact, enabling PTP1B to engage substrate(s) at these sites. Studies using PTP1B mutants show that the ER anchor plays an important role in restricting its interactions with PM substrates mainly to regions of cell-cell contact. In addition, treatment with PTP1B inhibitor leads to increased tyrosine phosphorylation of EphA2, a PTP1B substrate, specifically at regions of cell-cell contact. Collectively, our results identify PM-proximal sub-regions of the ER as important sites of cellular signaling regulation by PTP1B. © 2012 Haj et al.


Gajda M.J.,International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology | Gajda M.J.,European Molecular Biology Laboratories | Tuszynska I.,International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology | Tuszynska I.,Polish Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Bioinformatics | Year: 2010

Summary: Automatic methods for macromolecular structure prediction (fold recognition, de novo folding and docking programs) produce large sets of alternative models. These large model sets often include many native-like structures, which are often scored as false positives. Such native-like models can be more easily identified based on data from experimental analyses used as structural restraints (e.g. identification of nearby residues by cross-linking, chemical modification, site-directed mutagenesis, deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry, etc.). We present a simple server for scoring and ranking of models according to their agreement with user-defined restraints. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Gajda M.J.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Gajda M.J.,European Molecular Biology Laboratories | Zapien D.M.,Institute Of Genetique Et Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire | Uchikawa E.,Institute Of Genetique Et Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

We propose a novel fragment assembly method for low-resolution modeling of RNA and show how it may be used along with small-angle X-ray solution scattering (SAXS) data to model low-resolution structures of particles having as many as 12 independent secondary structure elements. We assessed this model-building procedure by using both artificial data on a previously proposed benchmark and publicly available data. With the artificial data, SAXS-guided models show better similarity to native structures than ROSETTA decoys. The publicly available data showed that SAXS-guided models can be used to reinterpret RNA structures previously deposited in the Protein Data Bank. Our approach allows for fast and efficient building of de novo models of RNA using approximate secondary structures that can be readily obtained from existing bioinformatic approaches. We also offer a rigorous assessment of the resolving power of SAXS in the case of small RNA structures, along with a small multimetric benchmark of the proposed method. © 2013 Gajda et al.


Hoog J.L.,European Molecular Biology Laboratories | Hoog J.L.,University of Oxford | Hoog J.L.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Huisman S.M.,European Molecular Biology Laboratories | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2011

Microtubules (MTs) exhibit dynamic instability, alternating between phases of growth and shortening, mostly at their uncapped plus ends. Based on results from cryo-electron microscopy it was proposed that growing MTs display mainly curved sheets and blunt ends; during depolymerisation curled 'ramshorns' predominate. Observations of MTs in mitotic cells have suggested that the situation in vivo differs from that in vitro, but so far, a clear comparison between in vivo and in vitro results has not been possible because MT end structures could not be correlated directly with the dynamic state of that particular MT. Here we combine light microscopy and electron tomography (ET) to show that growing MT plus ends in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe display predominantly a flared morphology. This indicates that MT polymerisation in vivo and in vitro can follow different paths.


Knott G.J.,University of Western Australia | Lee M.,La Trobe University | Passon D.M.,University of Western Australia | Passon D.M.,European Molecular Biology Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
Protein Science | Year: 2015

Members of the Drosophila behavior/human splicing (DBHS) protein family have been characterized in the vertebrates Homo sapiens and Mus musculus, and the invertebrates Drosophila melanogaster and Chironomus tentans. Collectively, both vertebrate and invertebrate DBHS proteins function throughout gene regulation, largely but not always, within the nucleus. In this study, we report a structural and bioinformatic analysis of the DBHS protein family to guide future studies into DBHS protein function. To explore the structural plasticity of the family, we describe the 2.4 Å crystal structure of Caenorhabditis elegans non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein 1 (NONO-1). The structure is dimeric, with a domain arrangement consistent with mammalian DBHS proteins. Comparison with the DBHS structures available from H. sapiens reveals that there is inherent domain flexibility within the homologous DBHS region. Mapping amino acid similarity within the family to the NONO-1 dimer highlights the dimer interface, coiled-coil oligomerization motif, and putative RNA binding surfaces. Surprisingly, the interior surface of RNA recognition motif 2 (RRM2) that faces a large internal void is highly variable, but the external β2-β3 loops of RRM2 show remarkable preservation. Overall, the DBHS region is under strong purifying selection, whereas the sequences N- and C-terminal to the DBHS region are less constrained. The findings described in this study provide a molecular basis for further investigation into the mechanistic function of the DBHS protein family in biology. © 2015 The Protein Society.


PubMed | European Molecular Biology Laboratories
Type: | Journal: Methods in cell biology | Year: 2010

The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has become a prominent model in molecular biology, both in yeast genetics and to investigate the molecular mechanism of the cell cycle. It has also proved to be a suitable model organism for looking at cell architecture and ultrastructure using electron microscopy (EM). Here we discuss what makes S. pombe particularly suited to EM and summarize the important discoveries regarding cell organization that have emerged from such studies. We describe the procedures and conventional methods used in EM analysis of fission yeast cells, and lay particular emphasis on cryogenic procedures, which preserve the cell structure in a near-native state, allowing elaborate three-dimensional reconstruction using electron tomography. The chapter also gives several examples of how contemporary EM approaches can be applied to provide a detailed read-out of phenotypes in this versatile cell system. A list of instruments and detailed protocols are provided together with EM-specific reagents required for sample preparation. Finally, potential new avenues of research are discussed, anticipating forthcoming topics in EM as well as new approaches to fission yeast research in the future.


PubMed | European Molecular Biology Laboratories
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of cell science | Year: 2011

Microtubules (MTs) exhibit dynamic instability, alternating between phases of growth and shortening, mostly at their uncapped plus ends. Based on results from cryo-electron microscopy it was proposed that growing MTs display mainly curved sheets and blunt ends; during depolymerisation curled ramshorns predominate. Observations of MTs in mitotic cells have suggested that the situation in vivo differs from that in vitro, but so far, a clear comparison between in vivo and in vitro results has not been possible because MT end structures could not be correlated directly with the dynamic state of that particular MT. Here we combine light microscopy and electron tomography (ET) to show that growing MT plus ends in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe display predominantly a flared morphology. This indicates that MT polymerisation in vivo and in vitro can follow different paths.

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