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Sangermano M.,University of Salerno | D'Aniello R.,University of Salerno | Massa G.,University of Salerno | Albano R.,Pediatrics | And 8 more authors.
Italian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Background and aims. Several neuromotor disorders share exclusive, although often overlooked, nutritional problems. The objective of this study is therefore to delineate the frequency of malnutrition, evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional care, and identify issues needing to be possibly strengthened when caring for these patients into a general pediatrics department. Patients and methods. The study included 30 patients, 21 males and 9 females, aged between 2 and 15 years, affected by cerebral palsy, epileptic encephalopathy, and severe psychomotor developmental delay. Nutritional status was assessed by a dietary questionnaire administered to parents to investigate feeding difficulties; 3 days food diary to quantify daily calorie intake; anthropometrical (weight, height/length, body mass index percentiles, plicometry, specific body segments measurement) and blood (blood count, serum iron, albumin, transferrin, calcium, phosphorus) parameters. Results: More than 44% individuals of the study population was at risk of malnutrition, according to feeding difficulties, progressive depletion of weight, reduced daily calorie intake, reduced albumin and transferrin levels. This occurred despite a massive caregivers commitment, as documented by almost universal parental constant assistance during their long-duration meals. Conclusions: Our results individuate the nutritional aspect being still a problem in the care of children with severe neuromotor disability. © 2014 Sangermano et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Trinchese G.,University of Naples Federico II | Cavaliere G.,University of Naples Federico II | Canani R.B.,European Laboratory for Food Induced Diseases | Matamoros S.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Different nutritional components are able, by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota composition, to influence body composition, metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects produced by the supplementation of different milks on energy balance, inflammatory state, oxidative stress and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities and to investigate the role of the mitochondrial efficiency and the gut microbiota in the regulation of metabolic functions in an animal model. We compared the intake of human milk, gold standard for infant nutrition, with equicaloric supplementation of donkey milk, the best substitute for newborns due to its nutritional properties, and cow milk, the primary marketed product. The results showed a hypolipidemic effect produced by donkey and human milk intake in parallel with enhanced mitochondrial activity/proton leakage. Reduced mitochondrial energy efficiency and proinflammatory signals (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide levels) were associated with a significant increase of antioxidants (total thiols) and detoxifying enzyme activities (glutathione- S-transferase, NADH quinone oxidoreductase) in donkey- and human milk-treated animals. The beneficial effects were attributable, at least in part, to the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 pathway. Moreover, the metabolic benefits induced by human and donkey milk may be related to the modulation of gut microbiota. In fact, milk treatments uniquely affected the proportions of bacterial phyla and genera, and we hypothesized that the increased concentration of fecal butyrate in human and donkey milk-treated rats was related to the improved lipid and glucose metabolism and detoxifying activities. © 2015 The Authors.

Cantone E.,University of Naples Federico II | Greco L.,University of Naples Federico II | Greco L.,European Laboratory for Food Induced Diseases | Morini G.,University of Gastronomic Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Medico e Bambino | Year: 2014

Recently, an increasing number of reports about the presence of taste receptors in extra oral tissues have suggested that these molecules should play additional roles apart from taste perception. It is evident that molecules that act as tastants in the oral cavity may serve as agonists for the same receptors also in non-gustatory tissues. Nutrient sensing within the GI tract might exert important regulatory roles in digestive and metabolic processes with relevant implications in functional GI disorders. Over the past two years it has become increasingly clear that the bitter taste receptor family T2R, expressed in ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, is able to detect bacterial products and to stimulate innate defences against pathogens. Recent clinical studies have suggested that genetic variations in a particular T2R isoform (TAS2R38), acting as ligand for quorum sensing molecules secreted by Gram-negative bacteria, are associated to susceptibility to severe upper respiratory infections.

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