European Environment Agency EEA

Copenhagen, Denmark

European Environment Agency EEA

Copenhagen, Denmark
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Gsella A.,European Environment Agency EEA | De Meij A.,The Cyprus Institute | Kerschbaumer A.,Free University of Berlin | Reimer E.,Free University of Berlin | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to evaluate three meteorological models (MM5, WRF and TRAMPER) by comparing the calculated meteorological parameters with observations over the Po Valley area (Italy) for 2005. The analysis shows that MM5 and WRF perform with similar quality, with advantages of WRF at following high resolution time patterns and better scores of MM5 at reproducing annual averages, noticed for precipitation and relative humidity calculations. Results from the TRAMPER model also reflect very well surface meteorological measurements, they may be however driven by data assimilation applied in this modelling system and thus strongly influenced by very local effects. This feature of TRAMPER may lead as well to large uncertainties in reproducing other parameters important for air quality modelling such as planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights, friction velocity (u*) values or stability conditions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Pernigotti D.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Thunis P.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Cuvelier C.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Georgieva E.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | And 14 more authors.
Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health | Year: 2013

The Po Valley (Italy) model inter-comparison exercise (POMI) has been carried out in order to explore the changes in air quality in response to changes in emissions. The starting point was the evaluation of the simulated particulate matter and ozone (O3) modelled concentrations against observations for the year 2005 of the six participating chemical transport models. As models were run with the same configuration in terms of spatial resolution, boundary condition, emissions and meteorology, the differences presented in the models' results are only related to their formulation. As described in the paper, significant efforts have been made to improve the accuracy of the anthropogenic emissions and meteorological input data. Nevertheless, none of the models using the proposed meteorology succeeded to fulfil the quality performance criteria set in the 2008 Air Quality Directive and in the literature for particulate matter, while also for ozone the results are not very satisfying. Although the overall performances look better for O3 than for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM10), the models tend to exhibit a similar behaviour and show the largest model variability in locations where concentrations are the highest (urban areas for PM10 and suburbs and hilly areas for O3). While differences are significant in terms of standard deviation and bias, the correlation remains quite similar among models indicating that models generally capture well the main temporal variations, especially the seasonal ones. Possible explanations for this common behaviour and a discussion of the differences among models' results are presented in this paper. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Andersen J.H.,NIVA Denmark Water Research | Andersen J.H.,Marine Research Center | Halpern B.S.,University of California | Halpern B.S.,National Center for Ecological Analysis And Synthesis | And 4 more authors.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2015

Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation of marine protected areas and ecosystem-based management, and may prove useful for setting limits on allowable levels of human impact on ecosystems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Guerreiro C.B.B.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | Foltescu V.,European Environment Agency EEA | de Leeuw F.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

This paper presents an overview and analysis of air quality in Europe from 2002 to 2011. It reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the EU air quality directives, as well as the development of European air pollutant emissions over the last decade. An overview of the latest findings and estimates of the exposure of urban population and ecosystems to air pollution in Europe is also given. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with data on anthropogenic emissions and their trends. The analysis covers up to 38 European countries, including EU Member States and member countries of the European Environment Agency (EEA) as of 2011. © 2014.

Giannouli M.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Kalognomou E.-A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Mellios G.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Moussiopoulos N.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of specific emission control measures on the air quality of urban centres and local area hotspots. In order to achieve this, a sequence of regional, urban and local scale models was applied to assess the impact of European emission control strategies on urban and local scale air quality. First, vehicle fleet and activity data were estimated using appropriate models. The results of these models were used as input to the COPERT model in order to estimate vehicle emissions (NO2 and PM10) at country level up to the year 2030. Vehicle emissions were calculated according to two different scenarios: A baseline scenario, CLE (Current LEgislation) and an optimistic alternative, MFR (Maximum Feasible Reductions). Urban background and traffic hotspot concentrations of air pollutants were then calculated using the OFIS (Ozone FIne Structure) and OSPM (Operational Street Pollution Model) models respectively for 20 cities in Europe and for particular types of streets. Air quality was found to improve in 2030 compared to the reference year 2000, in line with the stricter NOx and PM vehicle emission limits imposed. The NO2 street increments for narrow canyons estimated for the reference year were found to be in the range of 16-53 μg m-3, depending on the city considered. These were reduced to 14-36 μg m-3 in the CLE scenario and 7-24 μg m-3 in the MFR scenario. The corresponding range for PM10 was estimated to be 5-15 μg m-3 for the reference year and was reduced to 2-8 μg m-3 and 0.2-2.4 μg m-3 for the CLE and the MFR scenarios respectively. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Bessagnet B.,INERIS | Beauchamp M.,INERIS | Guerreiro C.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | de Leeuw F.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2014

Several studies point out the importance of agricultural emissions to particulate matter (PM) concentrations, and particularly of NH3 emissions to PM2.5. Our study used three different chemical transport models (CHIMERE, EMEP and LOTOS-EUROS) to quantify the reductions of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations due to reductions of NH3 emissions beyond the Gothenburg Protocol (GP), as well as due to the GP alone compared to 2009. Simulations of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations using 2009 meteorology were undertaken for five emission scenarios: 2009 emissions (as the reference simulation), GP emissions in 2020, and further 10%, 20% and 30% NH3 emission reductions in EU27 beyond the GP. The modelling results for the scenarios with further 10%, 20% and 30% NH3 agriculture emission reductions in EU27 beyond the GP show that the reduction achieved in PM concentrations is not linear with the emission reductions. In fact, the results from the study show that the impact of ammonia emissions reduction is significantly more efficient when the emission reduction rises. Moreover, based on the evaluation on 2009, the modelling study shows that the expected impact of ammonia emissions on the formation of particulate ammonium was underestimated by all models. This would imply that the role of ammonia on PM concentration and exceedances of PM2.5 and PM10 limit values is likely to be even larger than quantified in this study. This study shows that the implementation of the emission reductions imposed by the revised GP for 2020 will not suffice to achieve compliance with PM limit values everywhere in Europe; hence further European and local measures may be considered. NH3 emissions from agriculture can be further reduced with the implementation of proven and feasible measures (substitution of fertilizers, improved storage of manure, way fertilizer injections, etc., . . .), in order to reduce PM concentrations and their impacts on human health across Europe. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Sharma A.K.,Technical University of Denmark | Guildal T.,Avedoere Wastewater Services | Thomsen H.R.,Kruger Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies | Jacobsen B.N.,European Environment Agency EEA
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The aim of this project was to investigate the potential of reducing number of mixers in the biological treatment process and thereby achieve energy and economical savings and contribute to cleaner environment. The project was carried out at Avedoere wastewater treatment plant and a full scale investigation was conducted to study the effect of reduced mixing on flow velocity, suspended solid sedimentation, concentration gradients of oxygen and SS with depth and treatment efficiency. The only negative effect observed was on flow velocity; however the velocity was above the critical velocity. The plant has been operating with 50% of its designed number of mixers since September 2007 and long term results also confirm that reduced mixing did not have any negative effect on treatment efficiency. The estimated yearly electricity saving is 0.75 GWh/year. © IWA Publishing 2011.

Sharma A.K.,Technical University of Denmark | Guildal T.,Avedoere Wastewater Services | Thomsen H.A.R.,Kruger Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies | Mikkelsen P.S.,Technical University of Denmark | And 2 more authors.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2013

This paper investigates the aeration tank settling (ATS) operation in combination with real time control (RTC) as a tool for increasing the hydraulic capacity and improving the treatment efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) during wet weather flows. Results from 7 years' full-scale operational data at the Avedøre WWTP, Denmark, show that ATS operation in combination with RTC increases the hydraulic capacity of the treatment plant with up to 150 and 67% of the design capacity during winter and summer respectively. Compared to the conventional wet weather operation, the ATS in combination with RTC operation resulted in lower effluent concentrations for total phosphate (40-50%), suspended solids (30-60%) and chemical oxygen demand (30-50%), whereas no significant effect was observed on total nitrogen. Apart from the reduced effluent concentrations, the RTC resulted in economic savings in the form of reduced costs for electricity and green taxes. However, in very few cases the ATS operation in combination with RTC was not able to handle design capacity, and some overflows occurred at flows below the design capacity. The frequency of these overflows may increase in the future due to increased rain intensity resulting in shorter prediction time available for ATS. © IWA Publishing 2013 Water.

Lewinska K.E.,University of Graz | Lewinska K.E.,European Academy of Bozen Bolzano EURAC | Ivits E.,European Environment Agency EEA | Schardt M.,University of Graz | Zebisch M.,European Academy of Bozen Bolzano EURAC
Remote Sensing | Year: 2016

Observed alternation of global and local meteorological patterns governs increasing drought impact, which puts at risk ecological balance and biodiversity of the alpine forest. Despite considerable attention, drought impact on forest ecosystems is still not entirely understood, and comprehensive forest drought monitoring has not been implemented. In this study, we proposed to bridge this gap exploiting a time-domain synergetic use of medium resolution MODSI NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and NDII7 (Normalized Difference Infrared Index band 7) time series as well as on-station temperature and precipitation measures combined in the scPDSI (self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index) datasets. Analysis employed the S-mode Principal Component Analysis (PCA) examined under multiple method settings and data setups. The investigation performed for South Tyrol (2001-2012) indicated prolonged meteorological drought condition between 2003 and 2007, as well as general drying tendencies. Corresponding temporal variability was identified for local mountain forest. The former response was fostered more often by NDII7, which is related to foliage water content, whereas NDVI was more prone to report on an overall downturn and implied drop in forest photosynthetic activity. Among tested approaches, the covariance-matrix based S-mode PCA of z-score normalized vegetation season NDVI and NDII7 time series ensured the most prominent identification of drought impact. Consistency in recognized temporal patterns confirms integrity of the approach and aptness of used remote-sensed datasets, suggesting great potential for drought oriented environmental analyses. © 2016 by the authors.

Sannier C.,Systemes DInformation A Reference Spatiale SIRS SAS | Gallego J.,Joint Research Center | Dahmer J.,GAF AG | Smith G.,SpectoNatura | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of Spatial Accuracy 2016 | Year: 2016

The validation of a dataset such as the Copernicus Pan-European imperviousness degree high resolution layer requires considerable effort. A stratified systematic sampling approach was developed based on the LUCAS sampling frame focusing on a 2 stage stratification approach. A two-stage stratified sample of 20, 164 1ha square primary sampling units (PSU) was selected over EEA39 based on countries or groups of countries which area was greater than 90, 000km2 and a series of omission and commission strata. In each PSU, a grid of 5 × 5 Secondary Sample units (SSUs) with a 20 m step was applied. These points were photo-interpreted on orthophotos with a resolution better than 2.5m. Initial results based on the binary conversion of the map by applying the 30% threshold indicate a level of omission and commission errors substantially greater than the required maximum level of 15% set in the product specifications. However, this assumes that complete information is available for each PSU which is not the case. An alternative procedure was applied to the quantitative continuous data considering the sampling error due to the SSUs selection which is expected to exhibit a more realistic assessment of the amount of omission and commission.

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