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Wroclaw, Poland

Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: LCE-04-2014 | Award Amount: 1.90M | Year: 2015

The flexibility of the industrial electricity demand has been identified as a potential that through innovative business models can facilitate further growth of variable renewable energy, while reducing the industrial electricity costs and contributing to the European energy policy goals. In this project the large industry is working with the renewable energy community to identify and implement business models for supplying variable renewable electricity to industrial users with flexibility in their demand, creating win-win situations. Several variations of the business models will be described covering different options like on and off-site renewable energy production. The business models will be adapted to 5 industrial sectors (Chemicals, non-ferrous metals, cold storage, steel, and water treatment) and 6 target countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and UK). Tools will be developed to facilitate adoption of the business models: Model contracts adapted to the target countries and the different business models and a methodology that assesses the flexibility in industrial units and its value within the business models. The methodology will be transferred to third parties and will be applied in 6 case studies covering all target sectors and countries. Recommendations for improvements in the regulatory and market framework will be formulated and promoted. A top-down and a bottom-up methodology will be used to quantify the potential for further cost-effective grid integration of variable renewable electricity by the exploitation of the industrial electricity demand flexibility. The use of a sophisticated power system model and detailed analysis will provide reliable data on the impact the policy recommendations could have. An ambitious campaign will be carried out for engaging the target groups in direct action implementing the business models and informing the interested actors about the project activities and results.


Peters A.,WCA Environment Ltd. | Merrington G.,WCA Environment Ltd. | de Schamphelaere K.,Ghent University | Delbeke K.,European Copper Institute
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2011

The chronic Cu biotic ligand model (CuBLM) provides a means by which the bioavailability of Cu can be taken into account in assessing the potential chronic risks posed by Cu at specific freshwater locations. One of the barriers to the widespread regulatory application of the CuBLM is the perceived complexity of the approach when compared to the current systems that are in place in many regulatory organizations. The CuBLM requires 10 measured input parameters, although some of these have a relatively limited influence on the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for Cu. Simplification of the input requirements of the CuBLM is proposed by estimating the concentrations of the major ions Mg 2+, Na +, K +, SO 2- 4, Cl -, and alkalinity from Ca concentrations. A series of relationships between log10 (Ca,mgl -1) and log10 (major ion,mgl -1) was established from surface water monitoring data for Europe, and applied in the prediction of Cu PNEC values for some UK freshwater monitoring data. The use of default values for major ion concentrations was also considered, and both approaches were compared to the use of measured major ion concentrations. Both the use of fixed default major ion concentrations, and major ion concentrations estimated from Ca concentrations, provided Cu PNEC predictions which were in good agreement with the results of calculations using measured data. There is a slight loss of accuracy when using estimates of major ion concentrations compared to using measured concentration data, although to a lesser extent than when fixed default values are applied. The simplifications proposed provide a practical evidence-based methodology to facilitate the regulatory implementation of the CuBLM. © 2011 SETAC. Source


Targosz R.,European Copper Institute
Proceedings - International Symposium: Modern Electric Power Systems, MEPS'10 | Year: 2010

E-Learning is becoming an increasingly important way for professionals to update their knowledge. It provides them with the ability to access targeted resources at a time of their choosing and at their own pace. E-learning is already well established in some areas, such as the medical profession. In the electrical and energy sectors, well constructed resources that promote copper intensive solutions to address service factor, quality and reliability problems within current installation will be of high value. Over the last few years, the trend has been to produce resources in electronic format and to deliver them via the internet. Elearning is a natural extension of this process, with individual resources packaged, together with self-assessment modules, to form a structured learning path in which the user is progressively guided through the material. Self-assessment tests, before, during and at the end of the learning process, enable the user to review the material, to refer to supporting materials or to post questions in a forum. User progress through the material and their self assessment responses are logged, allowing to assess the effectiveness of the material, determine future needs and gather information indirectly about their current practice and attitudes. © 2011 Institute of Electrical Power. Source


Urrestarazu P.,Adolfo Ibanez University | Villavicencio G.,Adolfo Ibanez University | Opazo M.,Adolfo Ibanez University | Arbildua J.,Adolfo Ibanez University | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2014

Background: Low blood lead levels previously thought to pose no health risks may have an adverse impact on the cognitive development of children. This concern has given rise to new regulatory restrictions upon lead metal containing products intended for child use. However few reliable experimental testing methods to estimate exposure levels from these materials are available. Methods. The present work describes a migration test using a mimetic saliva fluid to estimate the chronic exposure of children to metals such as lead while mouthing metallic objects. The surrogate saliva medium was composed of: 150 mM NaCl, 0.16% porcine Mucin and 5 mM buffer MOPS, adjusted to pH 7.2. Alloys samples, in the form of polished metallic disc of known surface area, were subjected to an eight hours test. Results: Two whitemetal alloys Sn/Pb/Sb/Cu and three brass alloys Cu/Zn/Pb were tested using the saliva migration protocol. In the case of the whitemetal alloys, first order release kinetics resulting in the release of 0.03 and 0.51 μg lead/cm2after 8 hours of tests were observed, for lead contents of 0.05-0.07% and 5.5%, respectively. Brasses exhibited linear incremental release rates of 0.043, 0.175 and 0.243 μg lead/cm2h for lead contents of 0.1-0.2%, 1.7-2.2% and 3.1-3.5%, respectively. The linear regression analysis of lead release rates relative to Pb content in brasses yielded a slope of 0.08 μg lead/cm2h%Pb (r2= 0.92). Lead release rates were used to estimate the mean daily mouthing exposure of a child to lead, according to age-specific estimates of mouthing time behavior. Calculated daily intakes were used as oral inputs for the IEUBK toxicokinetic model, predicting only marginal changes in blood lead levels (0.2 μg lead/dL or less) for children aged 0.5 to 1 years old exposed to either class of alloy. Conclusions: The results of this study as a whole support the use of migration data of metal ions, rather than total metal content, to estimate health risk from exposure to metals and metal alloys substances in children. © 2014 Urrestarazu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Targosz R.,European Copper Institute
IEEE PES General Meeting, PES 2010 | Year: 2010

Electricity has the increasing role in energy supply chain. Electricity supply has to satisfy user requirements also in quality terms and good compatibility is necessary, including supply voltage level, voltage stability, waveform distortion due to harmonics and interharmonics, voltage unbalance but also long and short-term availability of the supply. One social concern is to keep electricity prices low enough not to slow down economic growth. At the same time electricity has to be increasingly green and functional. There is a risk that the quality of supply may deteriorate. Cost of insufficient quality may result in stoppage of the production, equipment malfunction, incorrect or reduced rate operation or equipment lifetime reduction. These costs have to be properly assessed to help in selection of preventing measures. Information on these costs is also necessary to set up regulatory measures. The regulation incentive or penalty has to balance the cost of problems mitigation versus cost of consequences in as much as possible social dimension. PQ contracts should work in similar way but are limited to particular consumers for whom such balance is easier to quantify and integrate with risk assessment. The power quality cost evaluation methodology , historical examples and application of results is presented in this paper. ©2010 IEEE. Source

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