European Commissions Joint Research Center

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European Commissions Joint Research Center

European, Italy
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Schade S.,European Commissions Joint Research Center | Schade S.,University of Munster | Tsinaraki C.,European Commissions Joint Research Center | Tsinaraki C.,Technical University of Crete | And 2 more authors.
First Monday | Year: 2017

Powered by advances of technology, today's Citizen Science projects cover a wide range of thematic areas and are carried out from local to global levels. This wealth of activities creates an abundance of data, for example, in the forms of observations submitted by mobile phones; readings of low-cost sensors; or more general information about peoples' activities. The management and possible sharing of this data has become a research topic in its own right. We conducted a survey in the summer of 2015 in order to collectively analyze the state of play in Citizen Science. This paper summarizes our main findings related to data access, standardization and data preservation. We provide examples of good practices in each of these areas and outline actions to address identified challenges. © First Monday, 1995-2017.

Rao S.T.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Mathur R.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Hogrefe C.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Keating T.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | And 2 more authors.
EM: Air and Waste Management Association's Magazine for Environmental Managers | Year: 2013

In the relatively short time since its inception, the AQMEII has emerged as a key forum for atmospheric modelers from North America and Europe to identify and address pressing science issues facing their respective communities. The initial task of performing an in-depth coordinated model intercomparison of uncoupled modeling systems has been completed successfully and, more importantly, has established the institutional and organizational framework for moving forward. In its current phase, the AQMEII will address the question of how well regional-scale online coupled meteorology-chemistry modeling system can simulate air quality-climate interactions. To broaden this analysis, the AQMEII is establishing collaborations with global-scale modeling activities such as HTAP to work on topics of mutual interest. Building upon its past and present work, the AQMEII is well positioned to address emerging science issues facing the regional-scale modeling communities, such as the application of atmospheric models for human exposure and ecosystem impact assessments with emission controls under current and future climate scenarios. Regardless of the specific topic tackled under the AQMEII, the cornerstone of this activity has been and will continue to be the critical evaluation of regional-scale air quality modeling systems, to help build confidence in their use for specific applications, and to clearly communicate the strengths/limitations of these modeling systems when used for guiding policy decisions. Copyright © 2012 Air & Waste Management Association.

Hoikkanen A.,European Commissions Joint Research Center | Bacigalupo M.,European Commissions Joint Research Center | Compano R.,European Commissions Joint Research Center | Lusoli W.,European Commissions Joint Research Center | Maghiros I.,European Commissions Joint Research Center
Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology | Year: 2010

This paper discusses the challenges and possible policy options for the regulation of electronic identity (eIdentity). Policy-oriented literature has often focused on technological solutions, and while this interest is warranted, much less has been said on the regulatory challenges and possible solutions arising directly from developments in eIdentity. In this context, we distinguish five main challenges for policymakers: eIdentity as a new legal category, issues related to identity rights, changing role of governments, developments in the eIdentity industry, and proliferation of identity management systems. We analyse these five challenges as they apply to two use cases, Augmented ID and Pinch Analytics, which highlight some practical problems for consumers that have emerged as a result of new concepts of eIdentity. We conclude by discussing possible policy options such as driving the development of a single regulatory market, supporting the development of common standards, enhancing cross-border legislation, defining a clear incentive framework for companies, and uniformly implementing existing legislation.

Gampfer R.,European Commissions Joint Research Center
Global Environmental Politics | Year: 2016

Climate clubs, or "minilateralism," are increasingly advocated as a way to move global climate governance forward. Minilateralism supposedly carries structural advantages that facilitate effective climate governance. Some have cautioned, however, that climate clubs lack political legitimacy, commanding little domestic public support. Consequently, small coalitions might not always be politically feasible, even if they could deliver substantial mitigation. Design features like the emission share regulated, commitment structure, club goods, and sanctions against nonmembers could help mitigate this deficit. I report results from conjoint experiments testing these propositions that were conducted with nationally representative samples in the United States and India. The findings indicate that minilateral approaches per se tend to receive low public support, but that support can be increased by certain configurations of design elements, especially through a combination of club goods for members and sanctions against nonmember countries. Climate clubs therefore need careful institutional design to be politically feasible. © 2016 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Allford L.,European Process Safety Center | Wood M.,European Commissions Joint Research Center | Gyenes Z.,European Commissions Joint Research Center | Hailwood M.,Landesanstalt fur Umwelt
Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series | Year: 2016

There is little doubt that safety culture is a much discussed subject across the high hazards industries and is seen by many to offer a possible solution to avoiding the conditions that pave the way for a major accident. It is also fair to say that the question of what to do with the concept of safety culture confuses and confounds many. In September 2015 the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Dutch Ministry of Labour co-organised and convened a three day workshop, one in a series of its annual Mutual Joint Visits (MJV) on the subject of safety culture, leadership and enforcement which involved competent authority inspectors across Europe and speakers from research institutes and several membership bodies. The aim of the workshop was to explore understanding of safety culture, the relevance of safety culture to effective risk management and what this means for the Seveso inspector. Even though safety culture is felt to be a hot topic it was found that about half of the 250 survey respondents claimed that they were unaware for instance of the concept of the safety culture ladder which ascribes descriptors to organisational cultures ranging from the pathological on the lowest rung to generative on the highest. Clearly there is still much work to do in raising the awareness of these concepts and making them operational for both major hazard operators and competent authorities. For the Seveso inspector one question which regularly arises, with regard to enforcement, is how to achieve particular results when the regulations are not specific in the requirements and an external measure of compliance is unavailable. This is very much the case when safety management systems are considered and even more so for the topic of safety culture. This paper explores the concepts of nudge, push and force interventions to the inspection of Seveso major hazard establishments and particularly with respect to influencing the leadership of hazardous operations. © 2016 IChemE.

Gocht A.,The Thunen Institute of Rural Studies | Britz W.,University of Bonn | Ciaian P.,European Commissions Joint Research Center | Paloma S.G.Y.,European Commissions Joint Research Center
Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2013

In this study, we analyse how three scenarios involving different levels of harmonisation of common agricultural policy (CAP) decoupled payments in the EU affect the distribution of farm income across regions and farm types. We use the farm type extension of the common agricultural policy impact (CAPRI) model, which captures farm heterogeneity across the EU. The first scenario (NUTS1) assumes uniform per-hectare payments at the NUTS1 level. The second scenario (MS-CONV) equalises the per-hectare rates inside each Member State (MS) and partially harmonises the single payment scheme (SPS) across MS in line with the 2011 Commission proposal. The third scenario simulates a uniform per-hectare payment at the EU level. Depending on the implementation of the SPS, the NUTS1 flat rate induces a substantial redistribution of payments across farm types and NUTS2 regions, particularly in regions that apply the historical SPS. The MS-CONV and EU flat-rate schemes have more significant impacts at the EU-wide level. In the EU-15, almost all farms lose payments from MS-CONV and EU-wide flat rates, whereas in the EU-10, almost all farm types gain from these scenarios. Our conservative estimates indicate that the flat-rate payments could redistribute up to €8.5 billion. Lower land rental costs partially offset the losses of farm income in the EU-15 from payment redistribution. Land rents drop for all flat-rate scenarios across most sectors and farm sizes in the EU-15. In the less productive new MS, the landowners' rental income is largely unaffected by the introduction of the flat rate. © 2013 The Agricultural Economics Society.

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