PubMed | c European Center for the Sustainable Impact of Nanotechnology, University of Venice, National Research Council Italy, a National Institute for Public Health and the Environment and Heriot - Watt University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nanotoxicology | Year: 2016
Increased use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about the potential for undesirable human health and environmental effects. Releases into the air may occur and, therefore, the inhalation route is of specific interest. Here we tested copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) after repeated inhalation as hazard data for this material and exposure route is currently lacking for risk assessment.Rats were exposed nose-only to a single exposure concentration and by varying the exposure time, different dose levels were obtained (CT protocol). The dose is expressed as 6h-concentration equivalents of 0, 0.6, 2.4, 3.3, 6.3, and 13.2mg/m(3) CuO NPs, with a primary particle size of 10 9.2-14nm and an MMAD of 1.5m.Twenty-four hours after a 5-d exposure, dose-dependent lung inflammation and cytotoxicity were observed. Histopathological examinations indicated alveolitis, bronchiolitis, vacuolation of the respiratory epithelium, and emphysema in the lung starting at 2.4mg/m(3). After a recovery period of 22 d, limited inflammation was still observed, but only at the highest dose of 13.2mg/m(3). The olfactory epithelium in the nose degenerated 24h after exposure to 6.3 and 13.2mg/m(3), but this was restored after 22 d. No histopathological changes were detected in the brain, olfactory bulb, spleen, kidney and liver.A 5-d, 6-h/day exposure equivalent to an aerosol of agglomerated CuO NPs resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity in rats, which almost completely resolved during a 3-week post-exposure period.
PubMed | University of Padua, c European Center for the Sustainable Impact of Nanotechnology and Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie IZSVe
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment | Year: 2016
Migration of nanomaterials from food containers into food is a matter of concern because of the potential risk for exposed consumers. The aims of this study were to evaluate silver migration from a commercially available food packaging containing silver nanoparticles into a real food matrix (chicken meat) under plausible domestic storage conditions and to test the contribution of such packaging to limit food spoilage bacteria proliferation. Chemical analysis revealed the absence of silver in chicken meatballs under the experimental conditions in compliance with current European Union legislation, which establishes a maximum level of 0.010 mg kg(-1) for the migration of non-authorised substances through a functional barrier (Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011). On the other hand, microbiological tests (total microbial count, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae) showed no relevant difference in the tested bacteria levels between meatballs stored in silver-nanoparticle plastic bags or control bags. This study shows the importance of testing food packaging not only to verify potential silver migration as an indicator of potential nanoparticle migration, but also to evaluate the benefits in terms of food preservation so as to avoid unjustified usage of silver nanoparticles and possible negative impacts on the environment.