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Libralato G.,European Center for Sustainable Impact of Nanotechnology | Libralato G.,University of Venice
Marine Environmental Research | Year: 2014

Artemia spp. is one of the most widespread saltwater organism suitable for ecotoxicity testing, but no internationally standardised methods exist. Several endpoints can be considered with Artemia spp. including short-term (24-48 h) and long-term (14 days) mortality, cysts and nauplii hatchability, biomass productivity, biomarkers' expression/inhibition and bioaccumulation on larvae as well as organisms' reproductive ability. Recently, Artemia spp. started to be used as a reference biological model in nanoecotoxicology with both inorganic and organic engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) also in combination with traditional environmental stressors looking for potential interactive effects. Criticisms were detected about the use of Artemia spp. in relation to the hatching phase, the toxicity test design, the occasional use only of reference toxicants and the way testing solution/suspensions were prepared thus potentially compromising the reliability of nanoecotoxicological results. A full list of compulsory information that must accompany Artemia nanoecotoxicity data is provided with positive feedbacks also for other toxicity bioassays. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Libralato G.,University of Venice | Libralato G.,European Center for Sustainable Impact of Nanotechnology | Minetto D.,University of Venice | Totaro S.,European Center for Sustainable Impact of Nanotechnology | And 5 more authors.
Marine Environmental Research | Year: 2013

Few data exist on the ecotoxicological effects of nanosized titanium dioxide (nTiO2) towards marine species with specific reference to bivalve molluscs and their relative life stages. Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck was selected to assess the potential adverse effects of nTiO2 (0-64mg/L) on its early larval development stages (pre-D shell stage, malformed D-shell stage and normal D-shell stage larvae) considering two exposure scenarios characterised by total darkness (ASTM protocol) and natural photoperiod (light/dark). This approach was considered to check the presence of potential effects associated to the photocatalytic properties of nTiO2. Parallel experiments were carried on with the bulk reference TiCl4. The toxicity of nTiO2 showed to be mainly related to its "nano" condition and to be influenced by the exposure to light that supported the increase in the number of pre-D shell stage (retarded) larvae compared to the malformed ones especially at the maximum effect concentrations (4 and 8mg nTiO2/L). The non-linear regression toxicity data analysis showed the presence of two EC50 values per exposure scenario: a) EC(50)1=1.23mg/L (0.00-4.15mg/L) and EC(50)2=38.56mg/L (35.64-41.47mg/L) for the dark exposure conditions; b) EC(50)1=1.65mg/L (0.00-4.74mg/L) and EC(50)2=16.39mg/L (13.31-19.48mg/L) for the light/dark exposure conditions. The potential implication of agglomeration and sedimentation phenomena on ecotoxicological data was discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Corsi I.,University of Siena | Cherr G.N.,University of California at Davis | Lenihan H.S.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Labille J.,Aix - Marseille University | And 13 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2014

The widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in a variety of technologies and consumer products inevitably causes their release into aquatic environments and final deposition into the oceans. In addition, a growing number of ENM products are being developed specifically for marine applications, such as antifouling coatings and environmental remediation systems, thus increasing the need to address any potential risks for marine organisms and ecosystems. To safeguard the marine environment, major scientific gaps related to assessing and designing ecosafe ENMs need to be filled. In this Nano Focus, we examine key issues related to the state-of-the-art models and analytical tools being developed to understand ecological risks and to design safeguards for marine organisms. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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