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Balmaseda M.A.,European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts | Mogensen K.,European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts | Weaver A.T.,European Center for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2013

A new operational ocean reanalysis system (ORAS4) has been implemented at ECMWF. It spans the period 1958 to the present. This article describes its main components and evaluates its quality. The adequacy of ORAS4 for the initialization of seasonal forecasts is discussed, along with the robustness of some prominent climate signals. ORAS4 has been evaluated using different metrics, including comparison with observed ocean currents, RAPID-derived transports, sea-level gauges, and GRACE-derived bottom pressure. Compared to a control ocean model simulation, ORAS4 improves the fit to observations, the interannual variability, and seasonal forecast skill. Some problems have been identified, such as the underestimation of meridional overturning at 26°N, the magnitude of which is shown to be sensitive to the treatment of the coastal observations. ORAS4 shows a clear and robust shallowing trend of the Pacific Equatorial thermocline. It also shows a clear and robust nonlinear trend in the 0-700 m ocean heat content, consistent with other observational estimates. Some aspects of these climate signals are sensitive to the choice of sea-surface temperature product and the specification of the observation-error variances. The global sea-level trend is consistent with the altimeter estimate, but the partition into volume and mass variations is more debatable, as inferred by discrepancies in the trend between ORAS4- and GRACE-derived bottom pressure. © 2012 Royal Meteorological Society. Source


Ribes A.,Meteo - France | Terray L.,European Center for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2013

Attribution of global near-surface temperature changes is revisited using simulations from the coupled model intercomparison project 5 and methodological improvements from the regularised optimal fingerprinting approach. The analysis of global mean temperature shows that changes can be robustly detected and attributed to anthropogenic influence. However, the differences between results from individual models and observations are found to be larger than the simulated internal variability in several cases. Discrimination between greenhouse gases and other anthropogenic forcings, based on the global mean only, is more difficult due to collinearity of temporal response patterns. Using spatio-temporal data provides less robust conclusions with respect to detection and attribution, as the results tend to deteriorate as the spatial resolution increases. More importantly, some inconsistencies between individual models and observations are found in this case. Such behaviour is not observed in a perfect model framework, where pseudo-observations and the expected response patterns are provided by the same model. However, using response patterns from a model other than the one used for pseudo-observations may lead to the same behaviour as real observations. Our results suggest that additional sources of uncertainty, such as modeling uncertainty or observational uncertainty, should not be neglected in detection and attribution. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Terray L.,European Center for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2012

Observed North Atlantic Ocean surface temperatures have changed in a non-monotonic and non-uniform fashion over the last century. Here we assess the relative roles of greenhouses gases, anthropogenic aerosols, natural forcings and internal variability to the North Atlantic surface temperature decadal fluctuations using multi-model climate simulations driven by estimates of observed external forcings. While the latter are the main source of decadal variability in the tropics and subtropics, there is a large contribution from the unforced component to subpolar Atlantic variations. Reconstruction of forced response patterns suggests that anthropogenic forcings are the main causes of the accelerated warming of the last three decades while internal variability has a dominant contribution to the early 20th-century temperature multi-decadal swings and recent abrupt changes in the subpolar Atlantic. Significant inter-model spread with regard to the spatial response patterns to anthropogenic forcing leads to substantial uncertainty as to robust attribution statements for the mid-to-late 20th century North Atlantic warm and cold periods. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source


Boe J.,European Center for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2013

How soil moisture affects precipitation is an important question-with far reaching consequences, from weather prediction to centennial climate change-, albeit a poorly understood one. In this paper, an analysis of soil moisture-precipitation interactions over France based on observations is presented. A first objective of this paper is to investigate how large scale circulation modulates soil moisture-precipitation interactions, thanks to a weather regime approach. A second objective is to study the influence of soil moisture not only on precipitation but also on the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. Indeed, to have a total positive soil moisture-precipitation feedback, the potential decrease in precipitation associated with drier soils should be larger than the decrease in evapotranspiration that drier soils may also cause. A potential limited impact of soil moisture on precipitation is found for some weather regimes, but its sign depends on large scale circulation. Indeed, antecedent dry soil conditions tend to lead to smaller precipitation for the negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) regime but to larger precipitation for the Atlantic Low regime. This differential response of precipitation to soil moisture anomalies depending on large scale circulation is traced back to different responses of atmospheric stability. For all circulation regimes, dry soils tend to increase the lifted condensation level, which is unfavorable to precipitation. But for the negative phase of the NAO, low soil moisture tends to lead to an increase of atmospheric stability while it tends to lead to a decrease of stability for Atlantic Low. Even if the impact of soil moisture anomalies varies depending on large scale circulation (it is larger for Atlantic low and the positive phase of the NAO), dry soils always lead to a decrease in evapotranspiration. As the absolute effect of antecedent soil moisture on evapotranspiration is always much larger than its effects on precipitation, for all circulation regimes dry soil anomalies subsequently lead to positive precipitation minus evapotranspiration anomalies i. e. the total soil moisture feedback is found to be negative. This negative feedback is stronger for the Atlantic Low and the positive phase of the NAO regimes. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source


Cattiaux J.,Meteo - France | Cassou C.,European Center for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2013

A crucial challenge in climate studies is to determine how warming trends due to anthropogenic forcing may affect the natural modes of atmospheric variability. In the northern extratropics, the leading pattern of atmospheric dynamics is known as the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), often computed as the first empirical orthogonal function of sea level pressure (SLP) or geopotential height at 500 mbar (Z500). Here we compare wintertime NAM changes estimated from previous (third phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3)) versus ongoing (fifth phase (CMIP5)) generations of multimodel projections for the 21st century, under similar emission scenarios (A2 scenario versus 8.5 W.m-2Representative Concentration Pathway). CMIP3 projections exhibited a positive NAM trend, albeit this response differed between SLP and Z500, whereas CMIP5 projections rather reveal a negative trend, especially for Z500. We show that the CMIP3/CMIP5 discrepancies are mostly explained in early winter by the local consequence of faster Arctic sea ice loss in CMIP5 and in late winter by the remote influence through teleconnection of stronger warming in the western tropical Pacific. The attribution of CMIP3/CMIP5 discrepancies to the differences in emission scenarios is assessed by investigating NAM responses in common 1% CO2idealized experiments. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

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