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Ricard C.,Aix - Marseille University | Ricard C.,European Center for Medical Imaging | Stanchi F.,Aix - Marseille University | Stanchi F.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The spatiotemporal and longitudinal monitoring of cellular processes occurring in tumors is critical for oncological research. We focused on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an untreatable highly vascularized brain tumor whose progression is thought to critically depend on the oxygen and metabolites supplied by blood vessels. We optimized protocols for orthotopic GBM grafting in mice that were able to recapitulate the biophysical constraints normally governing tumor progression and were suitable for intravital multiphoton microscopy. We repeatedly imaged tumor cells and blood vessels during GBM development. We established methods for quantitative correlative analyses of dynamic imaging data over wide fields in order to cover the entire tumor. We searched whether correlations existed between blood vessel density, tumor cell density and proliferation in control tumors. Extensive vascular remodeling and the formation of new vessels accompanied U87 tumor cell growth, but no strong correlation was found between local cell density and the extent of local blood vessel density irrespective of the tumor area or time points. The technique moreover proves useful for comparative analysis of mice subjected either to Bevacizumab anti-angiogenic treatment that targets VEGF or to AMD3100, an antagonist of CXCR4 receptor. Bevacizumab treatment massively reduced tumoral vessel densities but only transiently reduced U87 tumor growth rate. Again, there was no correlation between local blood vessel density and local cell density. Moreover, Bev applied only prior to tumor implantation inhibited tumor growth to the same extent as post-grafting treatment. AMD3100 achieved a potent inhibition of tumor growth without significant reduction in blood vessel density. These results indicate that in the brain, in this model, tumor growth can be sustained without an increase in blood vessel density and suggest that GBM growth is rather governed by stromal properties. © 2013 Ricard et al. Source

Fenrich K.K.,Aix - Marseille University | Weber P.,Aix - Marseille University | Rougon G.,Aix - Marseille University | Rougon G.,European Center for Medical Imaging | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2013

After spinal cord injury (SCI), resident and peripheral myelomonocytic cells are recruited to the injury site and play a role in injury progression. These cells are important for clearing cellular debris, and can modulate the retraction and growth of axons in vitro. However, their precise spatiotemporal recruitment dynamics is unknown, and their respective roles after SCI remain heavily debated. Using chronic, quantitative intravital two-photon microscopy of adult mice with SCI, here we show that infiltrating lysozyme M (LysM(+)) and resident CD11c(+) myelomonocytic cells have distinct spatiotemporal recruitment profiles, and exhibit changes in morphology, motility, phagocytic activity and axon interaction patterns over time. This study provides the first in vivo description of the influx of inflammatory and resident myelomonocytic cells into the injured spinal cord and their interactions with cut axons, and underscores the importance of precise timing and targeting of specific cell populations in developing therapies for SCI. © 2013 The Physiological Society. Source

Fenrich K.K.,Aix - Marseille University | Weber P.,Aix - Marseille University | Hocine M.,Aix - Marseille University | Zalc M.,Aix - Marseille University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2012

Repeated in vivo two-photon imaging of adult mammalian spinal cords, with subcellular resolution, would be crucial for understanding cellular mechanisms under normal and pathological conditions. Current methods are limited because they require surgery for each imaging session. Here we report a simple glass window methodology avoiding repeated surgical procedures and subsequent inflammation. We applied this strategy to follow axon integrity and the inflammatory response over months by multicolour imaging of adult transgenic mice. We found that glass windows have no significant effect on axon number or structure, cause a transient inflammatory response, and dramatically increase the throughput of in vivo spinal imaging. Moreover, we used this technique to track retraction/degeneration and regeneration of cut axons after a 'pin-prick' spinal cord injury with high temporal fidelity. We showed that regenerating axons can cross an injury site within 4 days and that their terminals undergo dramatic morphological changes for weeks after injury. Overall the technique can potentially be adapted to evaluate cellular functions and therapeutic strategies in the normal and diseased spinal cord. © 2012 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2012 The Physiological Society. Source

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