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Thomas P.,CEHTRA | Dawick J.,Royal Dutch Shell | Lampi M.,ExxonMobil | Lemaire P.,Total S.A. | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Toxicological research in the 1930s gave the first indications of the link between narcotic toxicity and the chemical activity of organic chemicals. More recently, chemical activity has been proposed as a novel exposure parameter that describes the fraction of saturation and that quantifies the potential for partitioning and diffusive uptake. In the present study, more than 2000 acute and chronic algal, aquatic invertebrates and fish toxicity data, as well as water solubility and melting point values, were collected from a series of sources. The data were critically reviewed and grouped by mode of action (MoA). We considered 660 toxicity data to be of acceptable quality. The 328 data which applied to the 72 substances identified as MoA 1 were then evaluated within the activity-toxicity framework: EC50 and LC50 values for all three taxa correlated generally well with (subcooled) liquid solubilities. Acute toxicity was typically exerted within the chemical activity range of 0.01-0.1, whereas chronic toxicity was exerted in the range of 0.001-0.01. These results confirm that chemical activity has the potential to contribute to the determination, interpretation and prediction of toxicity to aquatic organisms. It also has the potential to enhance regulation of organic chemicals by linking results from laboratory tests, monitoring and modeling programs. The framework can provide an additional line of evidence for assessing aquatic toxicity, for improving the design of toxicity tests, reducing animal usage and addressing chemical mixtures. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Ortega-Calvo J.-J.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Resources and Agriculture Biology of Seville | Harmsen J.,Wageningen University | Parsons J.R.,University of Amsterdam | Semple K.T.,Lancaster University | And 11 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The bioavailability of organic chemicals in soil and sediment is an important area of scientific investigation for environmental scientists, although this area of study remains only partially recognized by regulators and industries working in the environmental sector. Regulators have recently started to consider bioavailability within retrospective risk assessment frameworks for organic chemicals; by doing so, realistic decision-making with regard to polluted environments can be achieved, rather than relying on the traditional approach of using total-extractable concentrations. However, implementation remains difficult because scientific developments on bioavailability are not always translated into ready-to-use approaches for regulators. Similarly, bioavailability remains largely unexplored within prospective regulatory frameworks that address the approval and regulation of organic chemicals. This article discusses bioavailability concepts and methods, as well as possible pathways for the implementation of bioavailability into risk assessment and regulation; in addition, this article offers a simple, pragmatic and justifiable approach for use within retrospective and prospective risk assessment. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Swaen G.M.H.,Dow Chemical Company | Carmichael N.,European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals | Doe J.,Syngenta
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate the need for the creation of a system in which observational epidemiology studies are registered; an Observational Studies Register (OSR). Study Design and Setting: The current scientific process for observational epidemiology studies is described. Next, a parallel is made with the clinical trials area, where the creation of clinical trial registers has greatly restored and improved their credibility and reliability. Next, the advantages and disadvantages of an OSR are compared. Results: The advantages of an OSR outweigh its disadvantages. Conclusion: The creation of an OSR, similar to the existing Clinical Trials Registers, will improve the assessment of publication bias and will provide an opportunity to compare the original study protocol with the results reported in the publication. Reliability, credibility, and transparency of observational epidemiology studies are strengthened by the creation of an OSR. We propose a structured, collaborative, and coordinated approach for observational epidemiology studies that can provide solutions for existing weaknesses and will strengthen credibility and reliability, similar to the approach currently used in clinical trials, where Clinical Trials Registers have played a key role in strengthening their scientific value. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Rouquie D.,Bayer CropScience | Heneweer M.,Royal Dutch Shell | Botham J.,Syngenta | Ketelslegers H.,ExxonMobil | And 5 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology | Year: 2015

Identification of the potential hazards of chemicals has traditionally relied on studies in laboratory animals where changes in clinical pathology and histopathology compared to untreated controls defined an adverse effect. In the past decades, increased consistency in the definition of adversity with chemically-induced effects in laboratory animals, as well as in the assessment of human relevance has been reached. More recently, a paradigm shift in toxicity testing has been proposed, mainly driven by concerns over animal welfare but also thanks to the development of new methods. Currently, in vitro approaches, toxicogenomic technologies and computational tools, are available to provide mechanistic insight in toxicological Mode of Action (MOA) of the adverse effects observed in laboratory animals. The vision described as Tox21c (Toxicity Testing in the 21st century) aims at predicting in vivo toxicity using a bottom-up-approach, starting with understanding of MOA based on in vitro data to ultimately predict adverse effects in humans. At present, a practical application of the Tox21c vision is still far away. While moving towards toxicity prediction based on in vitro data, a stepwise reduction of in vivo testing is foreseen by combining in vitro with in vivo tests. Furthermore, newly developed methods will also be increasingly applied, in conjunction with established methods in order to gain trust in these new methods. This confidence is based on a critical scientific prerequisite: the establishment of a causal link between data obtained with new technologies and adverse effects manifested in repeated-dose in vivo toxicity studies. It is proposed to apply the principles described in the WHO/IPCS framework of MOA to obtain this link. Finally, an international database of known MOAs obtained in laboratory animals using data-rich chemicals will facilitate regulatory acceptance and could further help in the validation of the toxicity pathway and adverse outcome pathway concepts. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Campinho M.A.,University of Algarve | Galay-Burgos M.,European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals | Silva N.,University of Algarve | Costa R.A.,University of Algarve | And 3 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2012

Flatfish metamorphosis is the most dramatic postnatal developmental event in teleosts. Thyroid hormones (TH), thyroxine (T4) and 3,3'-5'-triiodothyronine (T3) are the necessary and sufficient factors that induce and regulate flatfish metamorphosis. Most of the cellular and molecular action of TH is directed through the binding of T3 to thyroid nuclear receptors bound to promoters with consequent changes in the expression of target genes. The conversion of T4 to T3 and nuclear availability of T3 depends on the expression and activity of a family of 3 selenocysteine deiodinases that activate T4 into T3 or degrade T4 and T3. We have investigated the role of deiodinases in skin and muscle metamorphic changes in halibut. We show that, both at the whole body level and at the cellular level in muscle and skin of the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) during metamorphosis, the coordination between activating (D2) and deactivating (D3) deiodinases expression is strongly correlated with the developmental TH-driven changes. The expression pattern of D2 and D3 in cells of both skin and muscle indicate that TH are necessary for the maintenance of larval metamorphic development and juvenile cell types in these tissues. No break in symmetry occurs in the expression of deiodinases and in metamorphic developmental changes occurring both in trunk skin and muscle. The findings that two of the major tissues in both larvae and juveniles maintain their symmetry throughout metamorphosis suggest that the asymmetric changes occurring during flatfish metamorphosis are restricted to the eye and head region. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source

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