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Brunel S.,European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization | Panetta D.,University of Melbourne | Fried G.,Laboratoire Of La Sante Des Vegetaux | Kriticos D.,CSIRO | And 4 more authors.
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2014

Parthenium or famine weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) is an annual plant originating from the Americas, which is a major invasive alien plant in almost all continents. While the deleterious impacts of the species on agriculture, human and animal health have been well documented, information on the pathways of entry of the species is only occasionally mentioned in the literature. As this invasive alien plant is only recorded as established in Israel and Egypt within the Euro-Mediterranean region, the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization identified P. hysterophorus as an emerging threat. EPPO therefore performed a Pest Risk Analysis on this species to assess the risk it represents and to consider appropriate management options. The EPPO Pest Risk Analysis main outputs are summarized in this article, indicating the probability of entry of the species via the different pathways within the EPPO region, its probabilities of establishment and spread, and the magnitude of its potential agricultural, environmental and social impacts. © 2014 OEPP/EPPO. Source


Brunel S.,European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization | Schrader G.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Brundu G.,Corpo Forestale e di Vigilanza Ambientale della Regione Autonoma della Sardegna | Fried G.,LNPV Station de Montpellier
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2010

A major step in tackling invasive alien plants consists of identifying those species that represent a future threat to managed and unmanaged habitats. The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization reviews and organizes data on alien plants in order to build an early warning system. A prioritization system is being developed to select species that represent emerging threats and require the most urgent pest risk analysis to implement preventive measures and to perform eradication and management measures. Attention has been drawn to the Mediterranean Basin which is particularly vulnerable because its climatic conditions potentially allow the establishment of sub-tropical and tropical species. Surveys and rapid assessments of spread and impact have allowed identification of emerging invasive alien plants for Mediterranean countries: Alternanthera philoxeroides (Amaranthaceae), Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae), Baccharis halimifolia (Asteraceae), Cortaderia selloana (Poaceae), Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae), Fallopia baldschuanica (Polygonaceae), Hakea sericea (Proteaceae), Humulus japonicus (Cannabaceae), Ludwigia grandiflora and L. peploides (Onagraceae), Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae), Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae), Myriophyllum heterophyllum (Haloragaceae), Pennisetum setaceum (Poaceae), Pistia stratiotes (Araceae), Salvinia molesta (Salviniaceae), Solanum elaeagnifolium (Solanaceae). These species represent priorities for action. Some other species are placed on the observation list, as available information does not allow them to be counted among the worst threats: Akebia quinata (Lardizabalaceae), Araujia sericifera (Apocynaceae), Delairea odorata (Asteraceae), Cabomba caroliniana (Cabombaceae), Nassella neesiana, N. tenuissima and N. trichotoma (Poaceae), Sesbania punicea (Fabaceae), and Verbesina encelioides (Asteraceae). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 OEPP/EPPO. Source


Robinet C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Van Opstal N.,European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization | Baker R.,UK Environment Agency | Roques A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Biological Invasions | Year: 2011

Pine wilt disease, which can rapidly kill pines, is caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. It is expanding its range in many countries in Asia and measures are being taken at the EU level to prevent its spread from Portugal. Due to the threat to European forests, it is important to prevent additional introductions and target surveillance to the points of entry that pose the greatest risk. In this study, we present a model to identify the European ports from which the nematode can spread most rapidly across Europe. This model describes: (1) the potential spread of the pine wood nematode based on short-distance spread (the active flight of the vector beetles) and long-distance spread (primarily due to human-mediated transportation), and (2) the development of pine wilt disease based on climate suitability and the potential spread of the nematode. Separate introductions at 200 European ports were simulated under various climate change scenarios. We found that the pine wood nematode could invade 19-60% of the study area (30°00 N-72°00 N, 25°00 W-40°00 E) by 2030, with the highest spread from ports located in Eastern and Northern Europe. Based on climate change scenarios, the disease could affect 8-34% of the study area by 2030, with the highest spread from ports located in South-Eastern Europe. This study illustrates how a spread model can be used to determine the critical points of entry for invasive species, so that surveillance can be targeted more accurately and control measures prioritised. © 2011 The Author(s). Source


Robinet C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Kehlenbeck H.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Kriticos D.J.,CSIRO | Kriticos D.J.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) are conducted worldwide to decide whether and how exotic plant pests should be regulated to prevent invasion. There is an increasing demand for science-based risk mapping in PRA. Spread plays a key role in determining the potential distribution of pests, but there is no suitable spread modelling tool available for pest risk analysts. Existing models are species specific, biologically and technically complex, and data hungry. Here we present a set of four simple and generic spread models that can be parameterised with limited data. Simulations with these models generate maps of the potential expansion of an invasive species at continental scale. The models have one to three biological parameters. They differ in whether they treat spatial processes implicitly or explicitly, and in whether they consider pest density or pest presence/absence only. The four models represent four complementary perspectives on the process of invasion and, because they have different initial conditions, they can be considered as alternative scenarios. All models take into account habitat distribution and climate. We present an application of each of the four models to the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, using historic data on its spread in Europe. Further tests as proof of concept were conducted with a broad range of taxa (insects, nematodes, plants, and plant pathogens). Pest risk analysts, the intended model users, found the model outputs to be generally credible and useful. The estimation of parameters from data requires insights into population dynamics theory, and this requires guidance. If used appropriately, these generic spread models provide a transparent and objective tool for evaluating the potential spread of pests in PRAs. Further work is needed to validate models, build familiarity in the user community and create a database of species parameters to help realize their potential in PRA practice. © 2012 Robinet et al. Source


Brunel S.,European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization | Horn N.M.,National Plant Protection Organization of the Netherlands | Unger J.-G.,National Health Research Institute | Arnitis R.,European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2013

The International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 7 Phytosanitary Certification System and No. 12 Phytosanitary Certificates are crucial Standards for the functioning of a reliable and efficient exchange of information between National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs) on consignments moving in international trade. These two Standards were revised in 2011 and they may in some cases be implemented in different ways. The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), in partnership with the Near East Plant Protection Organization (NEPPO), organized the Workshop 'Toward a harmonized implementation of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures no. 7 Phytosanitary Certification System and no. 12 Phytosanitary Certificates in Antalya (TR) from 20 to 22 November 2012 to share experiences and discuss practices on how these two standards are being implemented. Thirty-six participants from 22 countries attended this workshop. Their discussions on the implementations of ISPM 7 and ISPM 12 concerned various aspects of the certification system and of the use of phytosanitary certificates, and are summarized here. Aspects of the certification system included staffing, information on importing countries' phytosanitary requirements, models of phytosanitary certificates and record-keeping; aspects of phytosanitary certificates included the purpose of the certificates, attachments, certified copies, alterations, replacements, issuance after dispatch, means of conveyance, description of the products, additional declarations (including standardized wording), how to deal with re-export and transit situations, and the use of electronic certificates. The workshop concluded with recommendations and observations on the implementation of ISPM 7 and ISPM 12. © 2013 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2013 OEPP/EPPO. Source

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