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Bellafiore D.,CNR Marine Science Institute | Bellafiore D.,EuroMediterranean Center for Climate Change | Guarnieri A.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Grilli F.,CNR Marine Science Institute | And 4 more authors.
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans | Year: 2011

Boka Kotorska Bay, located in the southeastern Adriatic Sea along the Montenegro coastline, is a complex morphological structure, consisting of three embayments. They are connected and interact with the sea through narrow straits and the bay can be considered one of the main freshwater inputs into the southern Adriatic Sea. In the framework of the ADRICOSM-STAR project, a hydrodynamical model of this region provided results that are compared with CTD data and hydrodynamic scenarios are discussed for the bay. A finite element coastal model nested in a finite difference model that runs on the Adriatic Sea has been used to reproduce the complex morphology of the bay. Hydrodynamic modeling allows studying the main characteristics of this bay, identifying it as a Region of Freshwater Influence (ROFI). The freshwater input coming from the numerous sources present in the bays can strongly modify temperature, salinity and current patterns. The computation of the buoyancy ratio of the thermal and haline buoyancy flux showed that the Kotor and Morinj Bays experience a major effect of surface heating in summer, while the rest of the bay seems to be mostly affected by freshwater influence from precipitation and river discharge. An average estuarine situation is seen, presenting a surface outflow and a bottom inflow of water. Specific hydrodynamic processes can be detected in the channels that connect the different sub-basins of the Boka Kotorska Bay. Moreover, the computation of the Kelvin number in correspondence of the internal straits suggests classifying the Kotor and Morinj Bays differently from the outermost areas. The innermost Kotor and Morinj Bays, generally exchange little water with the sea and they have high values of residence times. However, their fresh water springs and rivers have the highest discharges that can change abruptly the picture with increase of the total water exchange between the bay and the sea. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Ciavatta S.,Plymouth Marine Laboratory | Ciavatta S.,EuroMediterranean Center for Climate Change | Pastres R.,University of Venice
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2011

Dynamic Harmonic Regression (DHR) models are applied here to the investigation of the interannual changes in the trend and seasonality of biogeochemical variables monitored in coastal areas. A DHR model can be regarded as a time-series component model, where the phases and amplitudes of the seasonal component, as well as the trend, are parameters that vary with time, reflecting relevant changes in the evolution of the biogeochemical variables. The model parameters and their confidence bounds are estimated by data assimilation algorithms, i.e. the Kalman filter and the Fixed Interval smoother. The DHR model structure is here identified by a preliminary spectral analysis and a subsequent minimization of the Bayesian Information Criterion, thus avoiding subjective choices of the frequencies in the seasonal component. The methodology was applied to the investigation of the long-term and interannual variability of ammonia, nitrate, orthophosphate and chlorophyll-a monitored monthly in the lagoon of Venice (Italy) during the years 1986-2008. It was found that the long-term evolutions of the biogeochemical variables were characterized by non-linear patterns and by statistically significant changes in the trend. The seasonal cycles of all the variables were characterized by a marked interannual variability. In particular, the changes in the seasonality of chlorophyll and nitrate were significantly related to the changes in the seasonality of water temperature at the study site and of nutrient concentrations in river discharges, respectively. These results indicate that the methodology could be a sound alternative to more traditional approaches for investigating the impacts of changes in environmental and anthropogenic forcings on the evolution of biogeochemical variables in coastal areas. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Bellafiore D.,CNR Marine Science Institute | Bellafiore D.,EuroMediterranean Center for Climate Change | Umgiesser G.,CNR Marine Science Institute
Ocean Dynamics | Year: 2010

This paper deals with the interaction and small-scale processes occurring around the inlets that connect the Venice Lagoon with the Northern Adriatic Sea. In a previous paper, barotropic processes have been investigated, whereas here, the focus is on the baroclinic processes. The hydrodynamics of the area are studied by means of a 3D shallow water hydrodynamic finite-element model, suitable to describe areas of complex morphology such as the coasts and the interaction channels. This is the first work that models the 3D interaction between the Venice Lagoon and the Adriatic Sea. Three different sets of simulations have been carried out to identify the physics behind the small-scale processes and the influence of the main forcings on the study area. The first imposes different idealized forcings, such as tides, wind, and river runoff. The vorticity maps of the first two layers show the predominance of wind forcing in the coastal area and tidal forcing in the three inlets of the Lagoon. Bora wind acts homogeneously, increasing the littoral currents, while Sirocco wind mainly impacts near Chioggia inlet, with a coastal current reversal, inducing its detachment offshore. Freshwater patterns are present along the coast, near the river mouths. Rivers do not directly influence the circulation close to the coast in front of the Venice Lagoon, except for the area near Chioggia inlet, where the Brenta river action can be seen. The second set of simulations deals with a sensitivity analysis to define the importance of the advection and of the baroclinic pressure gradient terms in the creation of persistent structures, such as small-scale coastal vortices seen along the littoral very close to the inlets. This analysis shows how advection is the main physical process responsible for the persistence of the positive vorticity structures close to the coast between the inlets, while the negative vorticity structures, also seen by the HF Radar, are due to the baroclinic-advective interaction. Finally, a real case, year 2004, has been simulated both to validate the model with observations and to identify the occurrence during the year of the characteristic hydrodynamic features attributable to the main forcings. The action of Bora wind characterizes the surface current patterns of February and November 2004, while Sirocco influences the month of May 2004. During periods of weak wind, themodel reproduces the small-scale vortical structures close to the littoral. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Deandreis C.,Institute Pierre Simon Laplace IPSL | Page C.,European Center for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation | Braconnot P.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Barring L.,Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute | And 7 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2014

Future climate evolution is of primary importance for the societal, economical, political orientations and decision-making. It explains the increasing use of climate projections as input for quantitative impact studies, assessing vulnerability and defining adaptation strategies in different sectors. Here we analyse 17 national and representative use cases so as to identify the diversity of the demand for climate information depending on user profiles as well as the best practices, methods and tools that are needed to answer the different requests. A particular emphasis is put on the workflow that allows to translate climate data into suitable impact data, the way to deal with the different sources of uncertainty and to provide a suited product to users. We identified three complementary tools to close the gap between climate scientists and user needs: an efficient interface between users and providers; an optimized methodology to handle user requests and a portal to facilitate access to data and elaborated products. We detail in the paper how these three tools can limit the intervention of experts, educate users, and lead to the production of useful information. This work provides the basis on which the ENES (European Network for Earth System Modelling) Portal Interface for the Climate Impact Communities is built. © 2014 The Author(s).

Schelde K.,University of Aarhus | Cellier P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Cellier P.,Agro ParisTech | Bertolini T.,EuroMediterranean Center for Climate Change | And 4 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2012

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural land are variable at the landscape scale due to variability in land use, management, soil type, and topography. A field experiment was carried out in a typical mixed farming landscape in Denmark, to investigate the main drivers of variations in N2O emissions, measured using static chambers. Measurements were made over a period of 20 months, and sampling was intensified during two weeks in spring 2009 when chambers were installed at ten locations or fields to cover different crops and topography and slurry was applied to three of the fields. N2O emissions during spring 2009 were relatively low, with maximum values below 20 ng N m-2 s-1. This applied to all land use types including winter grain crops, grasslands, meadows, and wetlands. Slurry application to wheat fields resulted in short-lived two-fold increases in emissions. The moderate N2O fluxes and their moderate response to slurry application were attributed to dry soil conditions due to the absence of rain during the four previous weeks. Cumulative annual emissions from two arable fields that were both fertilized with mineral fertilizer and manure were large (17 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 and 5.5 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1) during the previous year when soil water conditions were favourable for N2O production during the first month following fertilizer application. Our findings confirm the importance of weather conditions as well as nitrogen management on N2O fluxes. © 2012 Author(s).

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