Eurogenetica Ltd

Burnham-on-Sea, United Kingdom

Eurogenetica Ltd

Burnham-on-Sea, United Kingdom

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Livingstone K.M.,Northumbria University | Celis-Morales C.,Northumbria University | Lara J.,Northumbria University | Ashor A.W.,Northumbria University | And 13 more authors.
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2015

Risk variants of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with increased obesity. However, the evidence for associations between FTO genotype and macronutrient intake has not been reviewed systematically. Our aim was to evaluate the potential associations between FTO genotype and intakes of total energy, fat, carbohydrate and protein. We undertook a systematic literature search in OVID MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE and Cochrane of associations between macronutrient intake and FTO genotype in adults. Beta coefficients and confidence intervals (CIs) were used for per allele comparisons. Random-effect models assessed the pooled effect sizes. We identified 56 eligible studies reporting on 213,173 adults. For each copy of the FTO risk allele, individuals reported 6.46kcal day-1 (95% CI: 10.76, 2.16) lower total energy intake (P=0.003). Total fat (P=0.028) and protein (P=0.006), but not carbohydrate intakes, were higher in those carrying the FTO risk allele. After adjustment for body weight, total energy intakes remained significantly lower in individuals with the FTO risk genotype (P=0.028). The FTO risk allele is associated with a lower reported total energy intake and with altered patterns of macronutrient intake. Although significant, these differences are small and further research is needed to determine whether the associations are independent of dietary misreporting. © 2015 International Association for the Study of Obesity.


Celis-Morales C.,Vitality | Livingstone K.M.,Vitality | Marsaux C.F.M.,Maastricht University | Forster H.,University College Dublin | And 38 more authors.
Genes and Nutrition | Year: 2015

Improving lifestyle behaviours has considerable potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases, promoting better health across the life-course and increasing well-being. However, realising this potential will require the development, testing and implementation of much more effective behaviour change interventions than are used conventionally. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a multi-centre, web-based, proof-of-principle study of personalised nutrition (PN) to determine whether providing more personalised dietary advice leads to greater improvements in eating patterns and health outcomes compared to conventional population-based advice. A total of 5,562 volunteers were screened across seven European countries; the first 1,607 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited into the trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following intervention groups for a 6-month period: Level 0—control group—receiving conventional, non-PN advice; Level 1—receiving PN advice based on dietary intake data alone; Level 2—receiving PN advice based on dietary intake and phenotypic data; and Level 3—receiving PN advice based on dietary intake, phenotypic and genotypic data. A total of 1,607 participants had a mean age of 39.8 years (ranging from 18 to 79 years). Of these participants, 60.9 % were women and 96.7 % were from white-European background. The mean BMI for all randomised participants was 25.5 kg m−2, and 44.8 % of the participants had a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg m−2. Food4Me is the first large multi-centre RCT of web-based PN. The main outcomes from the Food4Me study will be submitted for publication during 2015. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Fallaize R.,University of Reading | Celis-Morales C.,Northumbria University | MacReady A.L.,University of Reading | Marsaux C.F.M.,Maastricht University | And 28 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) risk allele (e4) is associated with higher total cholesterol (TC), amplified response to saturated fatty acid (SFA) reduction, and increased cardiovascular disease. Although knowledge of gene risk may enhance dietary change, it is unclear whether e4 carriers would benefit from gene-based personalized nutrition (PN). Objectives: The aims of this study were to 1) investigate interactions between APOE genotype and habitual dietary fat intake and modulations of fat intake on metabolic outcomes; 2) determine whether gene-based PN results in greater dietary change than do standard dietary advice (level 0) and nongene-based PN (levels 1-2); and 3) assess the impact of knowledge of APOE risk (risk: E4+, nonrisk: E42) on dietary change after gene-based PN (level 3). Design: Individuals (n = 1466) recruited into the Food4Me pan- European PN dietary intervention study were randomly assigned to 4 treatment arms and genotyped for APOE (rs429358 and rs7412). Diet and dried blood spot TC and v-3 (n-3) index were determined at baseline and after a 6-mo intervention. Data were analyzed with the use of adjusted general linear models. Results: Significantly higher TC concentrations were observed in E4+ participants than in E42 (P , 0.05). Although there were no significant differences in APOE response to gene-based PN (E4+ compared with E42), both groups had a greater reduction in SFA (percentage of total energy) intake than at level 0 (mean 6 SD: E4+, 20.72% 6 0.35% compared with 21.95% 6 0.45%, P = 0.035; E42, 20.31% 6 0.20% compared with 21.68% 6 0.35%, P = 0.029). Gene-based PN was associated with a smaller reduction in SFA intake than in nongene-based PN (level 2) for E42 participants (21.68% 6 0.35% compared with 22.56% 6 0.27%, P = 0.025). Conclusions: The APOE e4 allele was associated with higher TC. Although gene-based PN targeted to APOE was more effective in reducing SFA intake than standard dietary advice, there was no difference between APOE "risk" and "nonrisk" groups. Furthermore, disclosure of APOE nonrisk may have weakened dietary response to PN. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530139. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;104:827-36. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.


Celis-Morales C.,Vitality | Livingstone K.M.,Vitality | Woolhead C.,University College Dublin | Forster H.,University College Dublin | And 31 more authors.
Genes and Nutrition | Year: 2015

In e-health intervention studies, there are concerns about the reliability of internet-based, self-reported (SR) data and about the potential for identity fraud. This study introduced and tested a novel procedure for assessing the validity of internet-based, SR identity and validated anthropometric and demographic data via measurements performed face-to-face in a validation study (VS). Participants (n = 140) from seven European countries, participating in the Food4Me intervention study which aimed to test the efficacy of personalised nutrition approaches delivered via the internet, were invited to take part in the VS. Participants visited a research centre in each country within 2 weeks of providing SR data via the internet. Participants received detailed instructions on how to perform each measurement. Individual’s identity was checked visually and by repeated collection and analysis of buccal cell DNA for 33 genetic variants. Validation of identity using genomic information showed perfect concordance between SR and VS. Similar results were found for demographic data (age and sex verification). We observed strong intra-class correlation coefficients between SR and VS for anthropometric data (height 0.990, weight 0.994 and BMI 0.983). However, internet-based SR weight was under-reported (Δ −0.70 kg [−3.6 to 2.1], p < 0.0001) and, therefore, BMI was lower for SR data (Δ −0.29 kg m−2 [−1.5 to 1.0], p < 0.0001). BMI classification was correct in 93 % of cases. We demonstrate the utility of genotype information for detection of possible identity fraud in e-health studies and confirm the reliability of internet-based, SR anthropometric and demographic data collected in the Food4Me study. Trial registration: NCT01530139 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01530139). © 2015, European Union.


PubMed | Tufts University, University of Oslo, CIBER ISCIII, University College Dublin and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) | Year: 2016

To examine whether the effect of FTO loci on obesity-related traits could be modified by physical activity (PA) levels in European adults.Of 1,607 Food4Me participants randomized, 1,280 were genotyped for FTO (rs9939609) and had available PA data. PA was measured objectively using accelerometers (TracmorD, Philips), whereas anthropometric measures [BMI and waist circumference (WC)] were self-reported via the Internet.FTO genotype was associated with a higher body weight [: 1.09 kg per risk allele, (95% CI: 0.14-2.04), P=0.024], BMI [: 0.54 kgm(-2) , (0.23-0.83), P<0.0001], and WC [: 1.07 cm, (0.24-1.90), P=0.011]. Moderate-equivalent PA attenuated the effect of FTO on BMI (P[interaction] =0.020). Among inactive individuals, FTO increased BMI by 1.06 kgm(-2) per allele (P=0.024), whereas the increase in BMI was substantially attenuated among active individuals (0.16 kgm(-2) , P=0.388). We observed similar effects for WC (P[interaction] =0.005): the FTO risk allele increased WC by 2.72 cm per allele among inactive individuals but by only 0.49 cm in active individuals.PA attenuates the effect of FTO genotype on BMI and WC. This may have important public health implications because genetic susceptibility to obesity in the presence of FTO variants may be reduced by adopting a physically active lifestyle.


PubMed | National Food and Nutrition Institute IZZ, University of Oslo, University College Dublin, TNO and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity | Year: 2015

Risk variants of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with increased obesity. However, the evidence for associations between FTO genotype and macronutrient intake has not been reviewed systematically. Our aim was to evaluate the potential associations between FTO genotype and intakes of total energy, fat, carbohydrate and protein. We undertook a systematic literature search in OVID MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE and Cochrane of associations between macronutrient intake and FTO genotype in adults. Beta coefficients and confidence intervals (CIs) were used for per allele comparisons. Random-effect models assessed the pooled effect sizes. We identified 56 eligible studies reporting on 213,173 adults. For each copy of the FTO risk allele, individuals reported 6.46kcal day(-1) (95% CI: 10.76, 2.16) lower total energy intake (P=0.003). Total fat (P=0.028) and protein (P=0.006), but not carbohydrate intakes, were higher in those carrying the FTO risk allele. After adjustment for body weight, total energy intakes remained significantly lower in individuals with the FTO risk genotype (P=0.028). The FTO risk allele is associated with a lower reported total energy intake and with altered patterns of macronutrient intake. Although significant, these differences are small and further research is needed to determine whether the associations are independent of dietary misreporting.


PubMed | Medical University of Warsaw, DSM Nutritional Products Inc., University of Oslo, University College Dublin and 7 more.
Type: | Journal: Molecular nutrition & food research | Year: 2016

Little is known about diet- and environment-gene interactions on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D concentration. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate (i) predictors of 25(OH)D concentration and relationships with vitamin D genotypes and (ii) whether dietary vitamin D intake and sunlight exposure modified these relationships.Participants from the Food4Me study (n = 1312; age 18-79) were genotyped for vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D binding protein at baseline and a genetic risk score was calculated. Dried blood spot samples were assayed for 25(OH)D concentration and dietary and lifestyle information collected. Circulating 25(OH)D concentration was lower with increasing genetic risk score, lower in females than males, higher in supplement users than non-users and higher in summer than winter. Carriage of the minor VDR allele was associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration in participants with the least sunlight exposure. Vitamin D genotype did not influence the relationship between vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D concentration.Age, sex, dietary vitamin D intake, country, sunlight exposure, season, and vitamin D genetic risk score were associated with circulating 25(OH)D concentration in a pan-European population. The relationship between VDR genotype and 25(OH)D concentration may be influenced by weekday sunlight exposure but not dietary vitamin D intake.


Gorman U.,Lund University | Gorman U.,Jönköping University College | Mathers J.C.,Vitality | Grimaldi K.A.,Eurogenetica Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Genes and Nutrition | Year: 2013

This article discusses the prospects and limitations of the scientific basis for offering personalized nutrition advice based upon individual genetic information. Two divergent scientific positions are presented, with an ethical comment. The crucial question is whether the current knowledge base is sufficiently strong for taking an ethically responsible decision to offer personalized nutrition advice based upon gene-diet-health interaction. According to the first position, the evidence base for translating the outcomes of nutrigenomics research into personalized nutritional advice is as yet immature. There is also limited evidence that genotype-based dietary advice will motivate appropriate behavior changes. Filling the gaps in our knowledge will require larger and better randomized controlled trials. According to the second position, personalized nutrition must be evaluated in relation to generally accepted standard dietary advice - partly derived from epidemiological observations and usually not proven by clinical trials. With personalized nutrition, we cannot demand stronger evidence. In several specific cases of gene-diet interaction, it may be more beneficial for individuals with specific genotypes to follow personalized advice rather than general dietary recommendations. The ethical comment, finally, considers the ethical aspects of deciding how to proceed in the face of such uncertainty. Two approaches for an ethically responsible way forward are proposed. Arguing from a precautionary approach, it is suggested that personalized dietary advice should be offered only when there is strong scientific evidence for health effects, followed by stepwise evaluation of unforeseen behavioral and psychological effects. Arguing from theoretical and applied ethics as well as psychology, it is also suggested that personalized advice should avoid paternalism and instead focus on supporting the autonomous choice of each person. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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