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A Coruña, Spain

Lillsunde K.-E.,University of Helsinki | Festa C.,University of Naples Federico II | Adel H.,National Institute of Oceanography of India | De Marino S.,University of Naples Federico II | And 7 more authors.
Marine Drugs | Year: 2014

Marine organisms and their metabolites represent a unique source of potential pharmaceutical substances. In this study, we examined marine-derived substances for their bioactive properties in a cell-based Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) replicon model and for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. In the screening of a marine sample library, crude extracts from the Indian soft coral, Sinularia kavarattiensis, showed promising activity against the CHIKV replicon. Bioassay-guided chemical fractionation of S. kavarattiensis resulted in the isolation of six known norcembranoids (1-6) and one new compound, named kavaranolide (7). The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 and 5-7 were evaluated for their replicon-inhibiting potential in the CHIKV model by using a luminescence-based detection technique and live cell imaging. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate inhibition of the CHIKV replicon, but imaging studies also revealed cytotoxic properties. Moreover, the effects of the isolated compounds on primary microglial cells, an experimental model for neuroinflammation, were evaluated. Compound 2 was shown to modulate the immune response in microglial cells and to possess potential anti-inflammatory properties by dose-dependently reducing the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

Wang R.,Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies | Wang H.,Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies | Carrera I.,EuroEspes Biotechnology | Xu S.,Florida Institute of Technology | Lakshmana M.K.,Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2015

Brain accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid β (Aβ) peptide because of increased processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), resulting in loss of synapses and neurodegeneration, is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Therefore, the identification of molecules that regulate Aβ generation and those that cause synaptic damage is crucial for future therapeutic approaches for AD. We demonstrated previously that COPS5 regulates Aβ generation in neuronal cell lines in a RanBP9-dependent manner. Consistent with the data from cell lines, even by 6 months, COPS5 overexpression in APΔE9 mice (APΔE9/COPS5-Tg) significantly increased Aβ40 levels by 32% (p < 0.01) in the cortex and by 28% (p < 0.01) in the hippocampus, whereas the increases for Aβ42 were 37% (p < 0.05) and 34% (p < 0.05), respectively. By 12 months, the increase was even more robust. Aβ40 levels increased by 63% (p < 0.001) in the cortex and by 65% (p < 0.001) in the hippocampus. Similarly, Aβ42 levels were increased by 69% (p < 0.001) in the cortex and by 71% (p < 0.011) in the hippocampus. Increased Aβ levels were translated into an increased amyloid plaque burden both in the cortex (54%, p < 0.01) and hippocampus (64%, p < 0.01). Interestingly, COPS5 overexpression increased RanBP9 levels in the brain, which, in turn, led to increased amyloidogenic processing of APP, as reflected by increased levels of sAPPβ and decreased levels of sAPPα. Furthermore, COPS5 overexpression reduced spinophilin in both the cortex (19%, p < 0.05) and the hippocampus (20%, p < 0.05), leading to significant deficits in learning and memory skills. Therefore, like RanBP9, COPS5 also plays a pivotal role in amyloid pathology in vivo. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Carrera I.,EuroEspes Biotechnology | Etcheverria I.,EuroEspes Biotechnology | Fernandez-Novoa L.,EuroEspes Biotechnology | Lombardi V.,EuroEspes Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2012

A novel vaccine addressing the major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), senile plaque-like deposits of amyloid beta-protein (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangle-like structures, and glial proinflammatory cytokines, has been developed. The present vaccine takes a new approach to circumvent failures of previous ones tested in mice and humans, including the Elan-Wyeth vaccine (AN1792), which caused massive T-cell activation, resulting in a meningoencephalitis-like reaction. The EB101 vaccine consists of A β 1 - 42 delivered in a novel immunogen-adjuvant composed of liposomes-containing sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). EB101 was administered to APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice before and after AD-like pathological symptoms were detectable. Treatment with EB101 results in a marked reduction of Aβ plaque burden, decrease of neurofibrillary tangle-like structure density, and attenuation of astrocytosis. In this transgenic mouse model, EB101 reduces the basal immunological interaction between the T cells and immune activation markers in the affected hippocampal/cortical areas, consistent with decreased amyloidosis-induced inflammation. Therefore, immunization with EB101 prevents and reverses AD-like neuropathology in a significant manner by halting disease progression without developing behavioral spatial deficits in transgenic mice. © 2012 Iván Carrera et al.

Carrera I.,EuroEspes Biotechnology | Etcheverria I.,EuroEspes Biotechnology | Fernandez-Novoa L.,EuroEspes Biotechnology | Lombardi V.R.M.,EuroEspes Biotechnology | And 3 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

Immunization against amyloid-beta-peptide (Aβ) has been widely investigated as a potential immunotherapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD). With the aim of developing an active immunogenic vaccine without need of coadjuvant modification for human trials and therefore avoiding such side effects, we designed the Aβ 1-42 vaccine (EB101), delivered in a liposomal matrix, that based on our previous studies significantly prevents and reverses the AD neuropathology, clearing Aβ plaques while markedly reducing neuronal degeneration, behavioral deficits, and minimizing neuroinflammation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Here, the efficacy of our immunogenic vaccine EB101 was compared with the original immunization vaccine cocktail Aβ 42 + CFA/IFA (Freund's adjuvant), in order to characterize the effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in the immunotherapeutic response. Quantitative analysis of amyloid burden showed a notable decrease in the neuroinflammation reaction against Aβ plaques when S1P was compared with other treatments, suggesting that S1P plays a key role as a neuroprotective agent. Moreover, EB101 immunized mice presented a protective immunogenic reaction resulting in the increase of Aβ-specific antibody response and decrease of reactive glia in the affected brain areas, leading to a Th2 immunological reaction. © 2015 Iván Carrera et al.

Wang H.,Section of Neurobiology | Dey D.,EuroEspes Biotechnology | Carrera I.,EuroEspes Biotechnology | Minond D.,Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

Background: Increased generation of toxic amyloidβpeptide (Aβ) in the brain is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results: COPS5 (Jab1) is a novel RanBP9-interacting protein that robustly increases Aβgeneration Conclusion: COPS5 increases Aβgeneration by stabilizing RanBP9 protein levels. Significance: Lowering COPS5 levels may be an effective therapeutic approach for AD. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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