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Pero, Italy

Restani P.,University of Milan | Uberti F.,University of Milan | Danzi R.,Unione Italiana Vini | Ballabio C.,University of Milan | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The possible presence of allergenic residues in wines treated with one of the potassium caseinates used as fining agents has been investigated. Samples of experimental (16) and commercial (63) wines that had been fined with caseinates with or without bentonites were studied. The leading physicochemical characteristics of each wine sample were determined to assess their possible role in promoting or hindering the elimination of allergenic residues. The study used a specifically developed ELISA test as well as an immunoblotting technique in which membranes were incubated with specific anti-caseinate antibody, both tests having high sensitivity for allergenic residues. No detectable allergenic residues were found in any of the samples by either immunochemical test, irrespective of the physicochemical characteristics of the wine, the type and dosage of refining agent and the enological process used. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Uberti F.,University of Milan | Danzi R.,Unione Italiana Vini | Stockley C.,Australian Wine Research Institute | Penas E.,University of Milan | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Proteinaceous egg whites are widely used as a fining agent during the production of red wines. Residues of egg white in the final wine could present a risk for individuals allergic to eggs. This study investigated the presence of allergenic residues in both red and white wines fined with egg whites. Experimental and commercially available wines fined with egg whites, with or without subsequent bentonite fining, were studied. Unfined wines were used as negative controls. The physicochemical characteristics of each wine were determined to assess their possible role in enhancing or hindering the elimination of allergenic residues from wine. The amount of egg white protein residues was investigated both by a specifically developed/validated ELISA test and by immunoblotting. Both immunochemical tests used the same anti-total egg white protein antibody and were highly sensitive to the allergen. No egg white protein was detected in the wines studied in either immunochemical test, irrespective of the physicochemical characteristics of the wine, the type and dosage of the fining agent and the oenological process used. The risk of adverse reactions in egg-allergic individuals should therefore be considered negligible, but the exemption from labelling should be allowed only when the absence of residues is confirmed by analytical controls. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Zanini C.,University of Turin | Gerbaudo E.,A.O. Ospedale Infantile Regina Margherita OIRM | Ercole E.,University of Turin | Vendramin A.,Euroclone SpA | Forni M.,University of Turin
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2012

Background: Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a gas (available as a 37% concentrated solution, stabilized with methanol). The 10% dilution (approximately 4% formaldehyde) has been used as a fixative since the end of the 19th century. Alternative fixatives are also commercially available or may be prepared in-house in laboratories. Statements by the IARC, along with other USA agencies (CalEPA, RoC/NTP) on the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde for humans renders its substitution in Pathology Departments necessary since the annual use of formalin may exceed 3,500 liters for a medium-large laboratory. To achieve a "formalin-free laboratory" we tested straightforward-to-make fixatives along with registered reagents offered as formalin substitutes. Methods. More than two hundreds specimens were fixed in parallel with in-laboratory made fixatives PAGA (Polyethylenglycol, ethyl Alcohol, Glycerol, Acetic acid), two zinc-based fixatives (ZBF, Z7), and commercially-available alternatives (RCL2 and CellBlock). Tissue micro arrays were used for morphological and immunohistochemical comparison. Extraction of RNA was carried out to evaluate preservation of nucleic acids. Results: Differences compared to formalin fixation were evident in alcohol-based fixatives, mainly restricted to higher stain affinity and considerable tissue shrinkage. Conversely, nuclear detail was superior with these alcohol-based formulas compared to formalin or glyoxale-based recipes. RNA extraction was superior for Z7, PAGA and RCL2 with regard to concentration but relatively comparable regarding quality. Conclusions: Abolition of the human carcinogen formaldehyde from pathology laboratories is possible even in contexts whereby commercial alternatives to formalin are unavailable or are too expensive for routine use, and aspiration devices are lacking or not adequately serviced. The use of known formulations, possibly with simple and not-noxious ("alimentary grade") constituents, comparable with registered proprietary products, may expand the search for the ideal fixative combining satisfactory morphology with improved preservation of nucleic acids and proteins as well as being easy and safe to dispose of. © 2012 Zanini et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Di Nardo F.,University of Turin | Anfossi L.,University of Turin | Ozella L.,University of Turin | Saccani A.,Euroclone SpA | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2016

Salivary cortisol is regarded as a reliable parameter for the noninvasive assessment of the welfare of animals, because it is strictly related to stress levels. Several methods are available for salivary cortisol measurement in mammals, however rapid diagnostic test for detecting salivary cortisol are confined to humans. The availability of such non invasive diagnostic tools operable in situ would facilitate monitoring of animal welfare. The Cortisol stress™ test provides a simple and rapid tool to discriminate cortisol levels in canine saliva above or below 4 ng/ml, which has been suggested as the cut-off value for distinguishing unstressed dogs from those experiencing stress. The test is based on a competitive immunochromatographic assay (ICT) using gold nanoparticles as probes, in which the color intensity of the Test line is inversely correlated to the salivary cortisol level. The qualitative result is obtained by the visual observation of the color formed on the Test line compared to that of the Control line We evaluated the accuracy of the test by determining salivary cortisol in 85 samples of canine saliva belonging to dogs with very variable age, sex, breed, and life history, and comparing the qualitative results to those obtained by a reference ELISA kit. Agreeing results were obtained through the two methods, and the ICT showed high diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and efficiency (100%, 98.4%, and 98.8%, respectively). Furthermore, we evaluated the precision of the test by an experimental design approach, which combines errors due to within-day and between-day variation with the biological variability, and demonstrated that the test could be reliably applied for correctly classifying canine samples, according to their salivary cortisol level. Moreover, we studied the shelf-life of the device in three experimental conditions. We confirmed the stability of the ICT at 4 °C and 25 °C for at least six months and observed similar results for an accelerated stability study conducted for 7 days at 37 °C, which suggest that the stability of ICT device could be estimated by the accelerated experiment alternatively to the real-time study. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

D'angelo E.,University of Padua | D'angelo E.,Institute of Pediatric Research | D'angelo E.,Euroclone SpA | Vicentini C.,University of Verona | And 7 more authors.
Current Drug Targets | Year: 2015

In the last 20 years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have become the most promising class of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for human cancer. From a therapeutic perspective, advances in the understanding of the molecular role of miRNAs in the pathological processes have significantly influenced the selection of new therapeutic modalities. Moreover, the intrinsic characteristics that confer stability to miRNAs in vitro, allow a longer molecular/structural resistance and activity in vivo. Preclinical models have consistently underlined the feasibility and efficacy of miRNA-based therapies, either alone or in combination with current targeted therapies. The appealing strength of such therapeutic option dwells in miRNAs’ ability to concurrently target multiple genes, frequently in the context of a specific network/pathway. This property allows miRNA-based therapy to be extremely efficient in regulating distinct biological processes relevant to normal and pathological cell homeostasis. The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of miRNAs in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis and their potential use as novel biomarkers and therapeutics. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers B.V. Source

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