Kann J.,Euroacademy |
Raukas A.,Institute of Ecology |
Siirde A.,Tallinn University of Technology
Oil Shale | Year: 2013
The production of oil shale gas from kukersite oil shale is a successfully implemented industrial process. The above process was urgently introduced in the former Soviet Union due to the energy crisis after World War II. During the second half of the 20th century the oil shale processing technologies and material sciences developed very fast, and with no doubt, whenever the need for the production of oil shale gas emerges today, we have valuable experience in this field. An economic analysis must give the answer to the profitability of this kind of production. The environmental issues are also important, first of all those related to the residue of organic matter in the solid waste from oil shale pyrolysis. © 2013 Estonian Academy Publishers.
International Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2012
Although the growth in sales of pharmaceuticals could be taken as a sign of the availability of medical services and medicine, it also indicates an increasing input of drug residues to the environment via treated sewage water. In this paper the medicine consumption in mass units was calculated on the basis of the sale of pharmaceuticals in 2010. Eleven active substances (ASs) were selected for risk assessment according to the Swedish model. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) for each AS was calculated and divided by the predicted no-effect concentration. Additionally, hazardous properties were taken into consideration. The calculated values of amoxicillin (PEC = 0.24-1.43 μg/l), diclofenac (PEC = 0.2-0.59 μg/l), ciprofloxacin (PEC = 0.052-0.13 μg/l), and ethinyl estradiol (PEC = 0.3 × 10 -3 μg/l) reflect a high level of risk to the aquatic environment in the area. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Martin L.,Euroacademy |
Randlane T.,University of Tartu |
Folia Cryptogamica Estonica | Year: 2011
A checklist of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of the Pakri Peninsula is presented and an overview of substrate preferences of recorded taxa is compiled. The list includes 243 species, eight of them appear new to Estonia: Catillaria atomarioides, Lecanora persimilis, Micarea lithinella, Opegrapha calcarea, Staurothele rupifraga, Thelidium olivaceum, T. papulare and Verrucaria hochstetteri. Verrucaria maculiformis, which was considered extinct in Estonia, is re-found, and Staurothele caesia, which has earlier been recorded as dubious for Estonia, is verified hereby. The greatest diversity of species is recorded among epilithic taxa, altogether with 121 species of which 63 species occurred on calcareous stones, 60 on granite, 18 on concrete and 12 on sandstone.