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Kyle J.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kyle J.L.,Eureka Genomics | Cummings C.A.,Life Technologies | Parker C.T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2012

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) continues to be a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children around the world. Two EPEC genomes have been fully sequenced: those of EPEC O127:H6 strain E2348/69 (United Kingdom, 1969) and EPEC O55:H7 strain CB9615 (Germany, 2003). The O55:H7 serotype is a recent precursor to the virulent enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7. To explore the diversity of O55:H7 and better understand the clonal evolution of O157:H7, we fully sequenced EPEC O55:H7 strain RM12579 (California, 1974), which was collected 1 year before the first U.S. isolate of O157:H7 was identified in California. Phage-related sequences accounted for nearly all differences between the two O55:H7 strains. Additionally, O55:H7 and O157:H7 strains were tested for the presence and insertion sites of Shiga toxin gene (stx)-containing bacteriophages. Analysis of non-phage-associated genes supported core elements of previous O157:H7 stepwise evolutionary models, whereas phage composition and insertion analyses suggested a key refinement. Specifically, the placement and presence of lambda-like bacteriophages (including those containing stx) should not be considered stable evolutionary markers or be required in placing O55:H7 and O157:H7 strains within the stepwise evolutionary models. Additionally, we suggest that a 10.9-kb region (block 172) previously believed unique to O55:H7 strains can be used to identify early O157:H7 strains. Finally, we defined two subsets of O55:H7 strains that share an as-yet-unobserved or extinct common ancestor with O157:H7 strains. Exploration of O55:H7 diversity improved our understanding of the evolution of E. coli O157:H7 and suggested a key revision to accommodate existing and future configurations of stx-containing bacteriophages into current models. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source


Poojari S.,Washington State University | Alabi O.J.,Washington State University | Fofanov V.Y.,Eureka Genomics | Naidu R.A.,Washington State University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

A graft-transmissible disease displaying red veins, red blotches and total reddening of leaves in red-berried wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars was observed in commercial vineyards. Next-generation sequencing technology was used to identify etiological agent(s) associated with this emerging disease, designated as grapevine redleaf disease (GRD). High quality RNA extracted from leaves of grape cultivars Merlot and Cabernet Franc with and without GRD symptoms was used to prepare cDNA libraries. Assembly of highly informative sequence reads generated from Illumina sequencing of cDNA libraries, followed by bioinformatic analyses of sequence contigs resulted in specific identification of taxonomically disparate viruses and viroids in samples with and without GRD symptoms. A single-stranded DNA virus, tentatively named Grapevine redleaf-associated virus (GRLaV), and Grapevine fanleaf virus were detected only in grapevines showing GRD symptoms. In contrast, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, Hop stunt viroid, Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1, Citrus exocortis viroid and Citrus exocortis Yucatan viroid were present in both symptomatic and non-symptomatic grapevines. GRLaV was transmitted by the Virginia creeper leafhopper (Erythroneura ziczac Walsh) from grapevine-to-grapevine under greenhouse conditions. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses indicated that GRLaV, almost identical to recently reported Grapevine Cabernet Franc-associated virus from New York and Grapevine red blotch-associated virus from California, represents an evolutionarily distinct lineage in the family Geminiviridae with genome characteristics distinct from other leafhopper-transmitted geminiviruses. GRD significantly reduced fruit yield and affected berry quality parameters demonstrating negative impacts of the disease. Higher quantities of carbohydrates were present in symptomatic leaves suggesting their possible role in the expression of redleaf symptoms. © 2013 Poojari et al. Source


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Be N.A.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | Thissen J.B.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | Gardner S.N.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | McLoughlin K.S.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Bacillus anthracis is the potentially lethal etiologic agent of anthrax disease, and is a significant concern in the realm of biodefense. One of the cornerstones of an effective biodefense strategy is the ability to detect infectious agents with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in the context of a complex sample background. The nature of the B. anthracis genome, however, renders specific detection difficult, due to close homology with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We therefore elected to determine the efficacy of next-generation sequencing analysis and microarrays for detection of B. anthracis in an environmental background. We applied next-generation sequencing to titrated genome copy numbers of B. anthracis in the presence of background nucleic acid extracted from aerosol and soil samples. We found next-generation sequencing to be capable of detecting as few as 10 genomic equivalents of B. anthracis DNA per nanogram of background nucleic acid. Detection was accomplished by mapping reads to either a defined subset of reference genomes or to the full GenBank database. Moreover, sequence data obtained from B. anthracis could be reliably distinguished from sequence data mapping to either B. cereusB. thuringiensis. We also demonstrated the efficacy of a microbial census microarray in detecting B. anthracis in the same samples, representing a cost-effective and high-throughput approach, complementary to next-generation sequencing. Our results, in combination with the capacity of sequencing for providing insights into the genomic characteristics of complex and novel organisms, suggest that these platforms should be considered important components of a biosurveillance strategy. © 2013 Be et al. Source

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