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Bolzano, Italy

Castellarin A.,University of Bologna | Pistocchi A.,GECOsistema Srl | Pistocchi A.,EURAC Research
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2012

The paper presents an analysis of 17 long annual maximum series (AMS) of flood flows for Swiss Alpine basins, aimed at checking the presence of changes in the frequency regime of annual maxima. We apply Pettitt's change point test, the nonparametric sign test and Sen's test on trends. We also apply a parametric goodness-of-fit test for assessing the suitability of distributions estimated on the basis of annual maxima collected up to a certain year for describing the frequency regime of later observations. For a number of series the tests yield consistent indications for significant changes in the frequency regime of annual maxima and increasing trends in the intensity of annual maximum discharges. In most cases, these changes cannot be explained by anthropogenic causes only (e.g. streamflow regulation, construction of dams). Instead, we observe a statistically significant relationship between the year of change and the elevation of the catchment outlet. This evidence is consistent with the findings of recent studies that explain increasing discharges in alpine catchments with an increase in the temperature controlling the portion of mountain catchments above the freezing point. Finally, we analyse the differences in return periods (RPs) estimated for a given flood flow on the basis of recent and past observations. For a large number of the study AMS, we observe that, on average, the 100-year flood for past observations corresponds to a RP of approximately 10 to 30years on the basis of more recent observation. From a complementary perspective, we also notice that estimated RP-year flood (i.e. flood quantile (FQ) associated with RP) increases on average by approximately 20% for the study area, irrespectively of the RP. Practical implications of the observed changes are illustrated and discussed in the paper. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Lucchi E.,Polytechnic of Milan | Lucchi E.,EURAC Research
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2016

In the contemporary age, the museum is dealing with unexpected challenges, related to the transformation of social structures, educative methods and cultural diffusion. Close to traditional structure, educational centers, amusement spaces, bookshops, conference rooms, shops, and restaurants arise. Refurbishment, restoration, and conversion of heritage buildings into exhibition spaces involve a series of conservation risks. Environmental and energy quality depends on achieving the right balance among several parameters, such as: public enjoyment, human comfort, communications, preventive conservation, energy consumption, and safety precautions. The research presents a simplified evaluation method for assessing the environmental and energy quality of museum buildings. It is structured in three phases: 1. Environmental performance evaluation considering the needs of preventive conservation and human comfort; 2. Energy performance evaluation; 3. Assessment of the environmental and energy quality, considering the integration between the previous evaluations. The tool has been applied in fifty European museums, to compare environmental and energy performance and identify the most common problems, weaknesses, and vulnerabilities. The method suggests a strategic and repeatable approach for balancing care, enhancement, and energy efficiency of cultural heritage. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Pistocchi A.,GECOsistema Srl | Notarnicola C.,EURAC Research
Natural Hazards | Year: 2013

Avalanche hazard and risk mapping is of utmost importance in mountain areas in Europe and elsewhere. Advanced methods have been developed to describe several aspects of avalanche hazard assessment, such as the dynamics of snow avalanches or the intensity of snowfall to assume as a reference meteorological forcing. However, relatively little research has been conducted on the identification of potential avalanche release areas. In this paper, we present a probabilistic assessment of potential avalanche release areas in the Italian Autonomous Province of Bolzano, eastern Alps, using the Weights of Evidence and Logistic Regression methods with commonly available GIS datasets. We show that a data-driven statistical model performs better than simple, although widely adopted, screening criteria that were proposed in the past, although the complexity of observed release areas is only partly captured by the model. In the best case, the model enables predicting about 70 % of avalanches in the 20 % of area classified at highest hazard. Based on our results, we suggest that probabilistic identification of potential release areas could provide a useful aid in the screening of sites for subsequent, more detailed hazard assessment. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Zavatti M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bertoni L.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Maraldi T.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Resca E.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | And 4 more authors.
Life Sciences | Year: 2015

Aims This study aims to evaluate the bone regeneration in a rat calvarias critical size bone defect treated with a construct consisting of collagen type I and human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) after oral administration of phytoestrogen ferutinin. Main methods In 12 week old male rats (n = 10), we performed two symmetric full-thickness cranial defects on each parietal region, and a scaffold was implanted into each cranial defect. The rats were divided into four groups: 1) collagen scaffold, 2) collagen scaffold + ferutinin at a dose of 2 mg/kg/5 mL, 3) collagen scaffold + AFSCs, and 4) collagen scaffold + AFSCs + ferutinin. The rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks, and the calvariae were removed, fixed, embedded in paraffin and cut into 7 μm thick sections. Histomorphometric measures, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses were performed on the paraffin sections. Key findings The histomorphometric analysis on H&E stained sections showed a significant increase in the regenerated area of the 4th group compared with the other groups. Immunohistochemistry performed with a human anti-mitochondrial antibody showed the presence of AFSCs 4 weeks after the transplant. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed the presence of osteocalcin and estrogen receptors (ERα and GPR30) in all groups, with a greater expression of all markers in samples where the scaffold was treated with AFSCs and the rats were orally administered ferutinin. Significance Our results demonstrated that the oral administration of ferutinin is able to improve the bone regeneration of critical-size bone defects in vivo that is obtained with collagen-AFSCs constructs. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Fusiello A.,University of Verona | Irsara L.,EURAC Research
Machine Vision and Applications | Year: 2011

This paper deals with the problem of epipolar rectification in the uncalibrated case. First the calibrated (Euclidean) case is recognized as the ideal one, then we observe that in that case images are transformed with a collineation induced by the plane at infinity, which has a special structure. Hence, that structure is imposed to the sought transformation while minimizing a rectification error. Experiments show that this method yields images that are close to the ones produced by Euclidean rectification. © Springer-Verlag 2010. Source

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