Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute

Rockville, MD, United States

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute

Rockville, MD, United States
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Willson D.F.,University of Virginia | Dean J.M.,University of Utah | Meert K.L.,Childrens Hospital of Michigan | Newth C.J.L.,Childrens Hospital Los Angeles | And 10 more authors.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2010

Objective: To update the pediatric critical care community on the progress of the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network and plans for the future. Setting: The six sites, seven hospitals of the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. Results: From the time of its inception in August 2005, the Network has engaged in a number of observational and interventional trials, several of which are ongoing. Additional studies are in the planning stages. To date, these studies have resulted in the publication of six manuscripts and five abstracts, with five additional manuscripts accepted and in press. Conclusion: The Network remains committed to its stated goal "to initiate a multicentered program designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of treatment and management strategies to care for critically ill children, as well as the pathophysiologic basis of critical illness and injury in childhood. © 2010 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies.

Zhang C.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Hu F.B.,Harvard University | Olsen S.F.,Statens Serum Institute | Vaag A.,Copenhagen University | And 13 more authors.
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica | Year: 2014

Women who develop gestational diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy are at substantially increased risk for type 2 diabetes and comorbidities after pregnancy. Little is known about the role of genetic factors and their interactions with environmental factors in determining the transition from gestational diabetes mellitus to overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. These critical data gaps served as the impetus for this Diabetes & Women's Health study with the overall goal of investigating genetic factors and their interactions with risk factors amenable to clinical or public health interventions in relation to the transition of gestational diabetes mellitus to type 2 diabetes mellitus. To achieve the goal efficiently, we are applying a hybrid design enrolling and collecting data longitudinally from approximately 4000 women with a medical history of gestational diabetes mellitus in two existing prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study II and the Danish National Birth Cohort. Women who had a medical history of gestational diabetes mellitus in one or more of their pregnancies are eligible for the present study. After enrollment, we follow study participants for an additional 2 years to collect updated information on major clinical and environmental factors that may predict type 2 diabetes mellitus risk as well as with biospecimens to measure genetic and biochemical markers implicated in glucose metabolism. Newly collected data will be appended to the relevant existing data for the creation of a new database inclusive of genetic, epigenetic and environmental data. Findings from the study are critical for the development of targeted and more effective strategies to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications in this high-risk population. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

News Article | November 17, 2015

3D printing has been around for at least 25 years, but it is only recently that it has started to go mainstream and given innovative researchers a tool with which to get creative. Now, Randall Erb and colleagues at Northeastern University are using magnetic fields to print detailed geometries from fiber-reinforced composite materials with the highest resolution to date. One possible future application of this technology could be the fabrication of medical devices, such as catheters for use in neonatal care. As such, the team is working as a subcontractor under funding awarded to N2 Biomedical LLC of Bedford, Massachusetts by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number 1R41HD086043. Almost half a million babies are born prematurely in the USA alone and their wellbeing relies on a range of tubes and catheters to deliver air to their lungs, as well as nutrients, fluids, and medications to their bodies and to remove urine. Standard catheters come only in set shapes and sizes and are not necessarily suitable for a particular baby. "With neonatal care, each baby is a different size, each baby has a different set of problems," explains Erb. "If you can print a catheter whose geometry is specific to the individual patient, you can insert it to a certain critical spot, you can avoid puncturing veins, and you can expedite delivery of the contents." A first step in the development of this technology is to demonstrate the necessary control in 3D printing. Erb and his colleagues have now used magnetic fields to shape composite materials - polymer-ceramic blends - to assist the 3D printing process and control the flow of ceramic fibers, lightly dusted with magnetic iron oxide. This allowed them to make 3d composite objects that show remarkable strength, stiffness. These products also show new mechanical properties such as programmable fracture toughness, Erb told us. "We [now] have the ability to manipulate crack paths through failing materials," he explains. [Nature Commun, 2015, 6, online DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9641] An ultralow magnetic field is sufficient to align the ceramic fibers within individual sections of the composite material immersed in liquid polymer to be 3D printed to a very specific device design. "Stereolithography then builds the product, layer by layer, using a computer-controlled projector to cure the polymer. That control will be critical if one is crafting devices with complex architectures, such as customized miniature biomedical devices. Within a single patient-specific device, the corners, the curves, and the holes must all be reinforced by ceramic fibers arranged in just the right configuration to make the device durable. "We are following nature's lead," explains team member Joshua Martin, "By taking really simple building blocks but organizing them in a fashion that results in really impressive mechanical properties." Until now there has been a gap between design and practical production. 3D printing with composite materials and magnetic control is filling that gap, the team suggests. David Bradley blogs at Sciencebase Science Blog and tweets @sciencebase, he is author of the bestselling science book "Deceived Wisdom".

Buck Louis G.M.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Chen Z.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Kim S.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Sapra K.J.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | And 4 more authors.
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2015

Objective To assess benzophenone-type ultraviolet (UV) filter concentrations, chemicals used in sunscreen and personal care products, and semen endpoints. Design Cohort. Setting Not applicable. Patient(s) A total of 413 men provided semen and urine samples, 2005-2009. Five UV filters were quantified (ng/mL) in urine using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry: BP-1 (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone), BP-2 (2,2′,4,4′-tetrahydroxybenzophenone), BP-3 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone), BP-8 (2,2′-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone), and 4-OH-BP (4-hydroxybenzophenone). Using linear regression, β-coefficients (β) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each chemical dichotomized at the 75th percentile and Box-Cox transformed semen endpoint were estimated, after adjusting for age, body mass index, cotinine, season, and site. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Thirty-five semen endpoints. Result(s) BP-2 was associated with diminished sperm concentration (β = -0.74; 95% CI -1.41, -0.08), straight (β = -4.57; 95% CI -8.95, -0.18) and linear movement (β = -3.15; 95% CI -6.01, -0.30), more immature sperm (β = 0.38; 95% CI 0.15, 0.62), and a decreased percentage of other tail abnormalities (β = -0.16; 95% CI -0.31, -0.01). BP-8 was associated with decreased hypo-osmotic swelling (β = -2.57; 95% CI -4.86, -0.29) and higher acrosome area (β = 1.14; 95% CI 0.01, 2.26). No associations were observed for BP-1, BP-3, or 4OH-BP. Conclusion(s) The findings suggest that specific UV filters may be associated with some aspects of semen endpoints, but await future corroboration. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

Lynch K.E.,National Health Research Institute | Lynch K.E.,Westminster College, Utah | Mumford S.L.,National Health Research Institute | Schliep K.C.,National Health Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2014

Objective To compare previously used algorithms to identify anovulatory menstrual cycles in women self-reporting regular menses. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Western New York. Patient(s) Two hundred fifty-nine healthy, regularly menstruating women followed for one (n = 9) or two (n = 250) menstrual cycles (2005-2007). Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Prevalence of sporadic anovulatory cycles identified using 11 previously defined algorithms that use E2, P, and LH concentrations. Result(s) Algorithms based on serum LH, E2, and P levels detected a prevalence of anovulation across the study period of 5.5%-12.8% (concordant classification for 91.7%-97.4% of cycles). The prevalence of anovulatory cycles varied from 3.4% to 18.6% using algorithms based on urinary LH alone or with the primary E2 metabolite, estrone-3-glucuronide, levels. Conclusion(s) The prevalence of anovulatory cycles among healthy women varied by algorithm. Mid-cycle LH surge urine-based algorithms used in over-the-counter fertility monitors tended to classify a higher proportion of anovulatory cycles compared with luteal-phase P serum-based algorithms. Our study demonstrates that algorithms based on the LH surge, or in conjunction with estrone-3-glucuronide, potentially estimate a higher percentage of anovulatory episodes. Addition of measurements of postovulatory serum P or urine pregnanediol may aid in detecting ovulation. © 2014 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

Ferguson G.M.,Knox College | Bornstein M.H.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Pottinger A.M.,University of the West Indies
Child Development | Year: 2012

A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A tridimensional model is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S. immigrant dyads (473 dyads, M adolescent age=14years). Jamaican immigrants evidence tridimensional acculturation, orienting toward Jamaican, African American, and European American cultures. Integration is favored (70%), particularly tricultural integration; moreover, Jamaican and other Black U.S. immigrants are more oriented toward African American than European American culture. Jamaican immigrant youth adapt at least as well as nonimmigrant peers in Jamaica and the United States. However, assimilated adolescents, particularly first generation immigrants, have worse sociocultural adaptation than integrated and separated adolescents. © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

Foulkes M.A.,George Washington University | Grady C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Spong C.Y.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Bates A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Clayton J.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Journal of Women's Health | Year: 2011

Clinical research investigates mechanisms of human disease, interventions, or new technologies, but pregnant women are often excluded from clinical studies. Few studies, beyond research on pregnancy, are designed to address questions relevant to pregnant women. A recent National Institutes of Health workshop considered the barriers and opportunities in conducting clinical research studies enrolling pregnant women. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Cheung H.H.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Cheung H.H.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Lee T.L.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Davis A.J.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Background: Testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) is the most common malignant tumour in young males. Although aberrant DNA methylation is implicated in the pathophysiology of many cancers, only a limited number of genes are known to be epigenetically changed in TGCT. This report documents the genome-wide analysis of differential methylation in an in vitro model culture system. Interesting genes were validated in TGCT patient samples. Methods: In this study, we used methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) and whole-genome tiling arrays to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Results: We identified 35 208 DMRs. However, only a small number of DMRs mapped to promoters. A genome-wide analysis of gene expression revealed a group of differentially expressed genes that were regulated by DNA methylation. We identified several candidate genes, including APOLD1, PCDH10 and RGAG1, which were dysregulated in TGCT patient samples. Surprisingly, APOLD1 had previously been mapped to the TGCT susceptibility locus at 12p13.1, suggesting that it may be important in TGCT pathogenesis. We also observed aberrant methylation in the loci of some non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). One of the ncRNAs, hsa-mir-199a, was downregulated in TGCT patient samples, and also in our in vitro model culture system. Conclusion: This report is the first application of MeDIP-chip for identifying epigenetically regulated genes and ncRNAs in TGCT. We also demonstrated the function of intergenic and intronic DMRs in the regulation of ncRNAs. © 2010 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.

Tobias D.K.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Chavarro J.E.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Williams M.A.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Buck Louis G.M.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2013

Studies of delayed conception and risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) are sparse, although common underlying mechanisms are plausible, including insulin resistance and inflammation. The association between a history of infertility and GDM was assessed prospectively among 40,773 eligible pregnancies in the US Nurses' Health Study II cohort (1989-2001). Biennial questionnaires provided updated information on infertility and several lifestyle and health-related characteristics. Multivariable log-binomial models with generalized estimating equations were used to compute risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for age, prepregnancy body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m) 2), and additional potential confounders. GDM occurred among 1,405 (5.2%) women. A prepregnancy history of infertility was reported by 5,497 (20.5%) participants and was significantly associated with a 39% greater risk of GDM (risk ratio (RR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24, 1.57; P < 0.001). Underlying reasons for infertility associated with GDM included ovulation disorders (RR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.87; P < 0.001) and tubal blockage (RR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.20, 2.77; P = 0.005). The association of cervical mucus disorder with GDM was of borderline significance (RR = 1.70, 95% CI: 0.88, 3.30; P = 0.11). Endometriosis (RR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.70, 2.31; P = 0.43) and male factor infertility (RR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.61; P = 0.55) were not associated with GDM risk. These novel findings suggest that infertility, particularly from ovulation disorders and tubal blockage, is associated with an increased GDM risk. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms or common underlying metabolic dysfunction explaining these observations. © 2013 Published by Oxford University Press.

Yu B.,Yeshiva University | Mumford S.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Royster IV G.D.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Segars J.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Armstrong A.Y.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2014

Objective To compare the cost effectiveness of proceeding with oocyte retrieval vs. converting to intrauterine insemination (IUI) in patients with &4 mature follicles during assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Design Probabilistic decision analysis. The cost effectiveness of completing ART cycles in poor responders was compared to that for converting the cycles to IUI. Setting Not applicable. Patient(s) Not applicable. Intervention(s) Cost-effectiveness analysis. Main Outcome Measure(s) Cost effectiveness, which was defined as the average direct medical costs per ongoing pregnancy. Result(s) In patients with 1-3 mature follicles, completing ART was more cost effective if the cost of a single ART cycle was between $10,000 and $25,000. For patients with 4 mature follicles, if an ART cycle cost ;lt18,025, it was more cost effective to continue with oocyte retrieval than to convert to IUI. Conclusion(s) In patients with ;4 mature follicles following ovarian stimulation in ART cycles, it was on average more cost effective to proceed with oocyte retrieval rather than convert to IUI. However, important factors, such as age, prior ART failures, other fertility factors, and medications used in each individual case need to be considered before this analysis model can be adapted by individual practices. © 2014 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

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