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Foulkes M.A.,George Washington University | Grady C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Spong C.Y.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Bates A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Clayton J.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Journal of Women's Health | Year: 2011

Clinical research investigates mechanisms of human disease, interventions, or new technologies, but pregnant women are often excluded from clinical studies. Few studies, beyond research on pregnancy, are designed to address questions relevant to pregnant women. A recent National Institutes of Health workshop considered the barriers and opportunities in conducting clinical research studies enrolling pregnant women. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Ferguson G.M.,Knox College | Bornstein M.H.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Pottinger A.M.,University of the West Indies
Child Development | Year: 2012

A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A tridimensional model is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S. immigrant dyads (473 dyads, M adolescent age=14years). Jamaican immigrants evidence tridimensional acculturation, orienting toward Jamaican, African American, and European American cultures. Integration is favored (70%), particularly tricultural integration; moreover, Jamaican and other Black U.S. immigrants are more oriented toward African American than European American culture. Jamaican immigrant youth adapt at least as well as nonimmigrant peers in Jamaica and the United States. However, assimilated adolescents, particularly first generation immigrants, have worse sociocultural adaptation than integrated and separated adolescents. © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

Lynch K.E.,National Health Research Institute | Lynch K.E.,Westminster College, Utah | Mumford S.L.,National Health Research Institute | Schliep K.C.,National Health Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2014

Objective To compare previously used algorithms to identify anovulatory menstrual cycles in women self-reporting regular menses. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Western New York. Patient(s) Two hundred fifty-nine healthy, regularly menstruating women followed for one (n = 9) or two (n = 250) menstrual cycles (2005-2007). Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Prevalence of sporadic anovulatory cycles identified using 11 previously defined algorithms that use E2, P, and LH concentrations. Result(s) Algorithms based on serum LH, E2, and P levels detected a prevalence of anovulation across the study period of 5.5%-12.8% (concordant classification for 91.7%-97.4% of cycles). The prevalence of anovulatory cycles varied from 3.4% to 18.6% using algorithms based on urinary LH alone or with the primary E2 metabolite, estrone-3-glucuronide, levels. Conclusion(s) The prevalence of anovulatory cycles among healthy women varied by algorithm. Mid-cycle LH surge urine-based algorithms used in over-the-counter fertility monitors tended to classify a higher proportion of anovulatory cycles compared with luteal-phase P serum-based algorithms. Our study demonstrates that algorithms based on the LH surge, or in conjunction with estrone-3-glucuronide, potentially estimate a higher percentage of anovulatory episodes. Addition of measurements of postovulatory serum P or urine pregnanediol may aid in detecting ovulation. © 2014 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

News Article
Site: www.materialstoday.com

3D printing has been around for at least 25 years, but it is only recently that it has started to go mainstream and given innovative researchers a tool with which to get creative. Now, Randall Erb and colleagues at Northeastern University are using magnetic fields to print detailed geometries from fiber-reinforced composite materials with the highest resolution to date. One possible future application of this technology could be the fabrication of medical devices, such as catheters for use in neonatal care. As such, the team is working as a subcontractor under funding awarded to N2 Biomedical LLC of Bedford, Massachusetts by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number 1R41HD086043. Almost half a million babies are born prematurely in the USA alone and their wellbeing relies on a range of tubes and catheters to deliver air to their lungs, as well as nutrients, fluids, and medications to their bodies and to remove urine. Standard catheters come only in set shapes and sizes and are not necessarily suitable for a particular baby. "With neonatal care, each baby is a different size, each baby has a different set of problems," explains Erb. "If you can print a catheter whose geometry is specific to the individual patient, you can insert it to a certain critical spot, you can avoid puncturing veins, and you can expedite delivery of the contents." A first step in the development of this technology is to demonstrate the necessary control in 3D printing. Erb and his colleagues have now used magnetic fields to shape composite materials - polymer-ceramic blends - to assist the 3D printing process and control the flow of ceramic fibers, lightly dusted with magnetic iron oxide. This allowed them to make 3d composite objects that show remarkable strength, stiffness. These products also show new mechanical properties such as programmable fracture toughness, Erb told us. "We [now] have the ability to manipulate crack paths through failing materials," he explains. [Nature Commun, 2015, 6, online DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9641] An ultralow magnetic field is sufficient to align the ceramic fibers within individual sections of the composite material immersed in liquid polymer to be 3D printed to a very specific device design. "Stereolithography then builds the product, layer by layer, using a computer-controlled projector to cure the polymer. That control will be critical if one is crafting devices with complex architectures, such as customized miniature biomedical devices. Within a single patient-specific device, the corners, the curves, and the holes must all be reinforced by ceramic fibers arranged in just the right configuration to make the device durable. "We are following nature's lead," explains team member Joshua Martin, "By taking really simple building blocks but organizing them in a fashion that results in really impressive mechanical properties." Until now there has been a gap between design and practical production. 3D printing with composite materials and magnetic control is filling that gap, the team suggests. David Bradley blogs at Sciencebase Science Blog and tweets @sciencebase, he is author of the bestselling science book "Deceived Wisdom".

Zhang C.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute | Hu F.B.,Harvard University | Olsen S.F.,Statens Serum Institute | Vaag A.,Copenhagen University | And 13 more authors.
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica | Year: 2014

Women who develop gestational diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy are at substantially increased risk for type 2 diabetes and comorbidities after pregnancy. Little is known about the role of genetic factors and their interactions with environmental factors in determining the transition from gestational diabetes mellitus to overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. These critical data gaps served as the impetus for this Diabetes & Women's Health study with the overall goal of investigating genetic factors and their interactions with risk factors amenable to clinical or public health interventions in relation to the transition of gestational diabetes mellitus to type 2 diabetes mellitus. To achieve the goal efficiently, we are applying a hybrid design enrolling and collecting data longitudinally from approximately 4000 women with a medical history of gestational diabetes mellitus in two existing prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study II and the Danish National Birth Cohort. Women who had a medical history of gestational diabetes mellitus in one or more of their pregnancies are eligible for the present study. After enrollment, we follow study participants for an additional 2 years to collect updated information on major clinical and environmental factors that may predict type 2 diabetes mellitus risk as well as with biospecimens to measure genetic and biochemical markers implicated in glucose metabolism. Newly collected data will be appended to the relevant existing data for the creation of a new database inclusive of genetic, epigenetic and environmental data. Findings from the study are critical for the development of targeted and more effective strategies to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications in this high-risk population. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

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