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Agnoli C.,Nutritional Epidemiology Unit | Berrino F.,Etiological and Preventive Epidemiology Unit | Abagnato C.A.,Centro Medico Diagnostico Emilia | Muti P.,Epidemiology and Prevention Unit | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2010

Background and aims: The increase in breast cancer incidence over recent decades has been accompanied by an increase in the frequency of metabolic syndrome. Several studies suggest that breast cancer risk is associated with the components of metabolic syndrome (high serum glucose and triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, high blood pressure, and abdominal obesity), but no prospective study has investigated risk in relation to the presence of explicitly defined metabolic syndrome. We investigated associations between metabolic syndrome, its components, and breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study on postmenopausal women of the ORDET cohort. Methods and results: After a median follow-up of 13.5 years, 163 women developed breast cancer; metabolic syndrome was present in 29.8%. Four matched controls per case were selected by incidence density sampling, and rate ratios were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Metabolic syndrome (i.e. presence of three or more metabolic syndrome components) was significantly associated with breast cancer risk (rate ratio 1.58 [95% confidence interval 1.07-2.33]), with a significant risk increase for increasing number of components (P for trend 0.004). Among individual metabolic syndrome components, only low serum HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides were significantly associated with increased risk. Conclusions: This prospective study indicates that metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Although serum HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides had the strongest association with breast cancer, all components may contribute to increased risk by multiple interacting mechanisms. Prevention or reversal of metabolic syndrome by life-style changes may be effective in preventing breast cancer in postmenopausal women. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sieri S.,Nutritional Epidemiology Unit | Krogh V.,Nutritional Epidemiology Unit | Berrino F.,Etiological and Preventive Epidemiology Unit | Evangelista A.,Nutritional Epidemiology Unit | And 16 more authors.
Archives of Internal Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Dietary glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) in relation to cardiovascular disease have been investigated in a few prospective studies with inconsistent results, particularly in men. The present EPICOR study investigated the association of GI and GL with coronary heart disease (CHD) in a large and heterogeneous cohort of Italian men and women originally recruited to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Methods: We studied 47 749 volunteers (15 171 men and 32 578 women) who completed a dietary questionnaire. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling estimated adjusted relative risks (RRs) of CHD and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During a median of 7.9 years of follow-up, 463 CHD cases (158 women and 305 men) were identified. Women in the highest carbohydrate intake quartile had a significantly greater risk of CHD than did those in the lowest quartile (RR, 2.00; 95% CI,1.16-3.43), with no association found in men (P=.04 for interaction). Increasing carbohydrate intake from high-GI foods was also significantly associated with greater risk of CHDin women (RR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.02-2.75), whereas increasing the intake of low-GI carbohydrates was not. Women in the highest GL quartile had a significantly greater risk of CHD than did those in the lowest quartile (RR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.26-3.98), with no significant association in men (P=.03 for interaction). Conclusion: In this Italian cohort, high dietary GL and carbohydrate intake from high-GI foods increase the over-all risk of CHD in women but not men. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Ciravolo V.,Molecular Targeting Unit | Huber V.,Unit of Immunotherapy of Human Tumors | Ghedini G.C.,Molecular Targeting Unit | Venturelli E.,Etiological and Preventive Epidemiology Unit | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2012

Exosomes are endosome-derived nanovesicles actively released into the extracellular environment and biological fluids, both under physiological and pathological conditions, by different cell types. We characterized exosomes constitutively secreted by HER2-overexpressing breast carcinoma cell lines and analyzed in vitro and in vivo their potential role in interfering with the therapeutic activity of the humanized antibody Trastuzumab and the dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) Lapatinib anti-HER2 biodrugs. We show that exosomes released by the HER2-overexpressing tumor cell lines SKBR3 and BT474 express a full-length HER2 molecule that is also activated, although to a lesser extent than in the originating cells. Release of these exosomes was significantly modulated by the growth factors EGF and heregulin, two of the known HER2 receptor-activating ligands and naturally present in the surrounding tumor microenvironment. Exosomes secreted either in HER2-positive tumor cell-conditioned supernatants or in breast cancer patients' serum bound to Trastuzumab. Functional assays revealed that both xenogeneic and autologous HER2-positive nanovesicles, but not HER2-negative ones, inhibited Trastuzumab activity on SKBR3 cell proliferation. By contrast, Lapatinib activity on SKBR3 cell proliferation was unaffected by the presence of autologous exosomes. Together, these findings point to the role of HER2-positive exosomes in modulating sensitivity to Trastuzumab, and, consequently, to HER2-driven tumor aggressiveness. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Stranges S.,University of Warwick | Sieri S.,Nutritional Epidemiology Unit | Vinceti M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Grioni S.,Nutritional Epidemiology Unit | And 7 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

Background: Growing evidence raises concern about possible associations of high selenium exposure with diabetes in selenium-replete populations such as the US. In countries with lower selenium status, such as Italy, there is little epidemiological evidence on the association between selenium and diabetes. This study examined the prospective association between dietary selenium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods: The ORDET cohort study comprised a large sample of women from Northern Italy (n = 7,182). Incident type 2 diabetes was defined as a self-report of a physician diagnosis, use of antidiabetic medication, or a hospitalization discharge. Dietary selenium intake was measured by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire at the baseline examination (1987-1992). Participants were divided in quintiles based on their baseline dietary selenium intake. Results: Average selenium intake at baseline was 55.7 μg/day. After a median follow-up of 16 years, 253 women developed diabetes. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the odds ratio for diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of selenium intake was 2.39, (95% CI: 1.32, 4.32; P for linear trend = 0.005). The odds ratio for diabetes associated with a 10 μg/d increase in selenium intake was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.52). Conclusions: In this population, increased dietary selenium intake was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. These findings raise additional concerns about the association of selenium intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (55 μg/day) with diabetes risk. © 2010 Stranges et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Pasanisi P.,Etiological and Preventive Epidemiology Unit | Bruno E.,Etiological and Preventive Epidemiology Unit | Venturelli E.,Etiological and Preventive Epidemiology Unit | Manoukian S.,Medical Genetics Unit | And 6 more authors.
Familial Cancer | Year: 2011

High serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are associated with an increased risk of sporadic breast cancer (BC). The aim of the present work is to evaluate the association between IGF-I and hereditary BC risk, using a case-control approach. The work represents an "ad interim" cross-sectional analysis of an ongoing study with a prospective design whose aim is to recruit a cohort of women belonging to high genetic risk families to test potential modulators of penetrance and prognosis. The odd of exposure to high serum IGF-I levels among women with a previous diagnosis of BC ("cases") was compared with the odd among unaffected "controls". The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression, controlling for confounders. We analysed 308 women (209 cases and 99 controls) at high genetic risk of BC. The adjusted OR of BC for the upper tertile of serum IGF-I versus the lowest one was 3.5 (95%CI 1.4-8.8). Excluding from the analysis 64 women under current Tamoxifen or GnRH analogues treatment, the adjusted OR of BC became 3.7 (95%CI 1.4-9.9). The association became stronger restricting the analysis to the 161 women (97 cases and 64 controls) with a proven BRCA mutation. If confirmed by a prospective approach, the association between IGF-I and familial BC will open further options for reducing BC risk in susceptible women. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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