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Vijayalakshmi R.,Ethiraj College for Women | Ravindhran R.,Loyola College
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To analyze the comparative finger print and extraction yield of D.ferrea root with phenol compound (Gallic acid), as determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. Method: The UV Vis spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy are adequate techniques to fingerprint comparatively and to evaluate the extraction yield of D.ferrea root extract. The higher extraction yield was recorded in ethanol comparatively superior and richer in phenol (gallic acid). Gallic acid has therapeutic application for inflammatory allergic diseases due to its ability to inhibit histamine. Finger print region was recorded between 500-3500 cm-1 for each extract and functional groups were identified and compared with the standard. Result: The extraction factor was superior in ethanol (270 nm) rich in polar molecules. The FTIR signal at 900, 1500, 1714, 3000, 3100cm-1 considered as a good indicator of phenol (gallic acid). The functional groups of each extract were identified. Conclusion: The UV and FTIR method was validated as a good tool to investigate the finger print and to predict the composition of different root extract of D.ferrea. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

Mythili T.,Ethiraj College for Women | Ravindhran R.,Loyola College
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2012

Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. is an erect, branched small tree up to 6 m tall with soft wood and paripinnate leaves. Flowers are yellow with brown streaks on the corolla. Fruits are sub cylindrical and shortly beaked. Seeds are green or brown and usually mottled. The plant is used as astringent, anti-inflammatory, carminative, demulcent, anthelmintic and antimicrobial. The phytochemical analysis of the methanol and ethanol extracts of both stem and root of Sesbania sesban revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins, phytosterol, phenol, flavonoids, fixed oil and gum. The leaf extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, protein, phytosterol, flavonoids and fixed oil. In vitro biological screening effects of the methanol stem extract was tested against ten bacterial species and five fungal species. Highly significant activity was observed against the bacteria Erwinia amylovora followed by Escherichia coli. In the case of fungi Curvularia lunata and Fusarium oxysporum were inhibited completely.

Vijayalakshmi R.,Ethiraj College for Women | Ravindhran R.,Loyola College
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2012

The present study was intended to establish the HPTLC gallic acid profile of the medicinally important plant Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. Ex Schultes and Diospyrus ferrea (Willd.) Bakh. HPTLC profiling was performed out by the method described by Harborne and Wagner et al. The Toluene-Ethyl acetate-Formic acid-Methanol (3: 3: 0.8: 0.2) was employed as mobile phase for gallic acid. Linear ascending development was carried out in 20 cm x 10cm twin trough glass chamber (CAMAG, Automatic TLC Sampler-4) saturated with the mobile phase and the chromatoplate development for two times with the same mobile phase to get good resolution of phytochemical contents. The developed plate was sprayed with 5% Ferric chloride as spray reagent, dried at 100° C in hot air oven for 10 min. The ethanolic root extract of A. lanata and D. ferrea illustrated the presence of gallic acid with different range of Rf from 0.38 to 0.74. In general, higher degree of gallic acid diversity has been observed in vegetative parts especially in roots. The gallic acid with the Rf value 0.48, 0.47 was present in Aerva lanata and 0.46, 0.47 was reported in Diospyrus ferrea (synonym Maba buxifolia) corresponding as that of standard. The gallic acid with the Rf value 0.47 showed their joint presence in both the root extract. Maximum amount of gallic acid has been observed in root of Diospyrus ferrea compare to that of A. lanata. Detection and quantification were performed by densitometry at λ = 277 nm. The average recovery of gallic acid was found to be 47.50 μg/ml in Diospyrus ferrea and 2.61 μg/ml in Aerva lanata respectively. Validated method showed linear response over concentration range of 100 to 700 ng. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 100, 300 ng/spot respectively. The results of the present study provided a valuable phytomarker for the identification and characterization of Diospyrus ferrea and Aerva lanata. The proposed HPTLC method provide a good resolution of gallic acid from other constituents present in ethanolic root extract of Diospyrus ferrea and Aerva lanata.

Rajasekaran A.,Ethiraj college for women | Duraikannan G.,Ethiraj college for women
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes aegypti. Methods: Petroleum ether, Chloroform and aqueous extracts obtained from Acalypha indica, Aerva lanata, Boerhaavia diffusa, Commelina benghalensis, Gompherna sps, Datura stramonium, Euphorpia hirta, Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara and Tridax procumbens were used for larvicidal activity at concentration of 1000μg/ml and the mortality rate was calculated after 24 and 48hrs. The LC50 for the extracts were also estimated after 24 hrs. Results: The petroleum ether extract of Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens and Datura stramonium showed 100% mortality after 48hrs of incubation. Tridax procumbens petroleum ether extract had the least LC50 of 219 μg/ml followed by Lantana and Datura with 251and 288 μg/ml respectively. A combination of petroleum ether extracts of Aerva lanata and Cynodon dactylon, Boerhaavia diffusa and Commelina benghalensis exhibited 100% mortality of larvae. Formulation-1 inhibited the metamorphosis of the larvae by retaining 60% in its larval stage. Petroleum ether extracts of Lantana, Tridax, Datura and a combination of extracts were effective larvicide. The formulations proved to be effective in inhibiting the metamorphosis. Alkaloids and flavonoids were present in datura petroleum ether extract. Conclusions: Either the crude extracts of Datura stramonium, Lantana camara and Tridax procumbens or its phytochemicals can be used as effective vector control agents individually or in combination. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

Brindha G.,Ethiraj College for women | Vijayanthimala R.,Ethiraj College for women
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2016

Mixed ligand copper(II) complexes of thiosemicarbazoneof acetophenone/ benzophenone/benzaldehyde/vanillin together with chloroethanol and ethylenediamine (en) as other ligands, [Cu(R2C=N-N=C(S-)NH2) (ClCH2CH2O)(en)] were synthesized and characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, IR, UV -Visible and Electron spin resonance spectral studiesand magnetic susceptibility measurements. These complexes were subjected to antimicrobial studiesagainst the bacteria, E.coli, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, staphylococcus auerus, and Pseudomonasaeruginosa and against the fungi, candida albicans,Trichoderma viridi and Aspergillus Niger. The complexes were found to be good antibacterial and antifungal agents. MTT assay of cytotoxicity ofthe complexes against HT 29-cancer cell line (colon cancer cells) and Vero cell line (Normal kidney cells) indicated that the complexes exhibited excellent anticancer activity with very low IC50 values together with significantly higher selectivity index.

Jothi Karumari R.,Ethiraj College for Women | Vijayalakshmi K.,Ethiraj College for Women | Ezhilarasi Balasubramanian S.,Ethiraj College for Women
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2014

One of the major sources of wool and meat production is sheep. But sheep are affected mostly by helminthiasis, the most important animal disease which leads to heavy production loss. Cotylophoron cotylophorum is one of the trematode parasites that cause helminthiasis in sheep. Since chemotherapeutic anthelmintics create resistance and side effects, there is a need for an alternative plant based anthelmintics, which could be effective in expelling these worms. Ocimum sanctum, which is the most sacred herb of India, is of two varieties Rama Tulsi (green) and Krishna Tulsi (black). Apart from religious significance it has got amazing number of health benefits. The present investigation deals with the comparison of phytochemical constituents and anthelmintic activity in the aqueous extract of the two leaf varieties (green and black) of O. sanctum against Cotylophoron cotylophorum. The results of the preliminary phytochemical constituents revealed that the secondary metabolites like triterpenoid, flavonoid, phenol, tannin, alkaloid, saponin and acid were present and steroid was absent in both leaf varieties (green and black) of O. sanctum. Though, dose dependent anthelmintic activity was observed in both the leaf varieties, black leaves are with more efficacy than green.

Manjula A.U.,Ethiraj College for Women | Kumar P.S.,Ethiraj College for Women
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2016

The study is focussed to emphasize the values of fruits of Aegle marmelos as a natural drug. Phytochemical screening among benzene, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts revealed the presence of preliminary compounds like alkaloid, flavonoid, phenols, terpenoids, tannin, saponin and few other compounds. Crude methanol and aqueous extracts were used for further studies. Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus sp.) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) revealed potential resistance against E.coli (16mm) and S.aureus (14mm) in aqueous (3mg/ml) and methanol (3mg/ml) extract respectively. Antifungal activity tested against Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Mucor sp., Rhizopus sp. showed maximum fungal inhibition zone against Penicillium sp. (16mm and 24mm) in Aqueous (4mg/ml) and methanol (4mg/ml) extracts respectively. In vitro antioxidant capacity was estimated by 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and the highest scavenging activity of 55.11% and 53.13% was observed in aqueous (100μl) and methanol (100μl) respectively. Therefore, A.marmelos fruits are immense source of bioactive compounds which might be a natural remedy for mankind against microbial infections and boost immunity. © RJPT All right reserved.

Rajasekaran A.,Ethiraj College for Women | Mahimaidoss M.,Ethiraj College for Women
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2016

Objective: The in vitro antioxidant activity was studied in the aqueous extract of leaf galls in Mangifera indica. Methods: Aqueous gall extract was initially estimated for its phytochemical content, and antioxidant assays were carried out. Results: It was evident that the total tannin, flavonoids, lycopene, and β-carotenoid content were 20%, 28%, 8%, and 5% higher than the healthy leaf tissue at a higher concentration of 1000 μg/ml. The iron chelating, superoxide anion scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) scavenging, and total antioxidant activity were 13%, 10%, 6%, 48%, and 14%, respectively, from that of healthy tissue at 1000 μg/ml concentration. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity was directly proportional to the concentration of the extract used in the study and the phytochemical constituents had a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity. © 2016, Innovare Academics Sciences Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ponnulakshmi R.,Ethiraj College for Women | Ezhilarasi Balasubramanian S.,Ethiraj College for Women
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

The study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of different extracts of bulb of the Allium cepa varieties on antifungal and antioxidant activity. The extracts were prepared with aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and petroleum ether and subjected for preliminary phytochemical, antioxidant and antifungal activity. The total ash and water content, organic, inorganic were evaluated along with the different extracts of onion bulb. Total phenolic content were analyzed by HPLC method. The presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as carbohydrate, proteins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins was confirmed through preliminary phyto-chemical analysis. DPPH free radical, nitric oxide, superoxide anion radical scavenging assays showed strong antioxidant activities with increase in concentration of bulb extracts of the aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and petroleum ether fractions of the three onion varieties. Antifungal activity was assessed by the paper disc agar diffusion method. The results of the antifungal activity showed that among the onion varieties analyzed, the small onion exhibited strong fungal growth inhibition in its aqueous, chloroform and petroleum ether extraction while white onion is effective in its ethanolic extract and red onion is effective in its chloroform extract. Screening of antioxidant and antibacterial activity performed on A. cepa bulb extracts shows that they are endowed with potentially exploitable free radical scavenging and antifungal activity. These results showed that onion bulb can be a source of compounds that can serve as templates for future fungicides against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus, fumigates, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. Hence, bulb extracts of A. cepa varieties could be used as an easy accessible source of natural antioxidants, and antifungal agent making it one of the potent therapeutic phytomedicines.

Sudhaparimala S.,Ethiraj College for Women | Vaishnavi M.,Ethiraj College for Women
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2016

Coupled semiconductor oxides in the nano scale are in greater demand due to their wide spectrum of applications. The present study deals with the simple eco-friendly Sol - Gel synthesis of the nano composite of tin (IV) oxide and zinc oxide (SnO2 - ZnO) using the gel of aloe vera plant as the medium from the precursors of Sn(II) chloride and Zinc acetate respectively. The results of the Powder X-ray Diffractograms, Scanning Microscopic images indicated the decisive role of the plant gel in the aqueous solubility, crystallite size reduction and spherical morphology of the synthesized nano composite. Preliminary application study indicated the efficiency of the sample in the visible light assisted degradation of the organic dye, Methyl orange. Also, the nano composite was found to be effective against the growth of staphylococcus aureus and E. Coli at the microgram level. Ultimately the study widened the scope of the multi functionality of the nano metric composite of tin (IV) oxide with Zinc oxide. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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