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Merera C.,Hawassa University | Merera C.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Abebe G.,Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program | Sebsibe A.,Ethiopian Meat and Dairy Technology Institute | Goetsch A.L.,Langston University
Journal of Applied Animal Research

Yearling sheep from Highland (Arsi-Bale, H) and Lowland (Black Head Ogaden, L) areas of Ethiopia were used to determine effects and interactions of animal origin, feeding and lengths of rest and feeding on harvest measures. Ten sheep of each origin were rested for 1, 2 or 3d after arrival at the abattoir and before slaughter with ad libitum availability of grass hay and water and an overnight fast preceding slaughter. Eighteen to 20 sheep of each origin were fed for 2, 4 or 6 weeks in length with ad libitum grass hay and a concentrate supplement at 220 g/day per animal. There was an interaction (P<0.05) between origin and the linear effect of feeding period length in average daily gain, with a much greater value for H-F2 compared with other treatments (209, 120, 125, 118, 90 and 113 g/day for H-F2, H-F4, H-F6, L-F2, L-F4 and L-F6, respectively). Hot carcass weight increased linearly with increasing length of rest (P<0.05), with a tendency (P<0.09) for greater change for H vs L animals and the effect (P<0.05) of feeding vs rest (8.09, 8.34, 8.73, 7.88, 8.19, 8.02, 9.08, 8.54, 9.13, 8.17, 8.03 and 8.57 kg for H-Rl, H-R2, H-R3, L-Rl, L-R2, L-R3, H-F2, H-F4, H-F6, L-F2, L-F4 and L-F6, respectively). Carcass pH or instrumental color did not change due to treatment. In conclusion, there is considerable opportunity to increase carcass weight of H by manipulating periods of rest after arrival at the abattoir and before slaughter longer than 1 day. Moreover, 2 weeks of feeding H sheep markedly increased carcass weight. © GSP, India. Source

Negash F.,Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center | Tadesse E.,Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center | Aseffa E.,Ethiopian Meat and Dairy Technology Institute | Yimamu C.,Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center | Hundessa F.,Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center
Livestock Research for Rural Development

The study was conducted in purposively selected districts of East Shoa and West Arsi Zones of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia by selecting 150 dairy owning households using structured questionnaire to identify milk production, handling, processing, dairy products utilization and marketing system. The results of the study show that the overall average holding of milking cows per household in the study area were 1.92±0.09. Among 40% of the farmers holding crossbred dairy cows the majority were farmers of peri-urban area. Cow milk production was the major activity as a source of food and income in the area. However, small amount of milk was produced from goat and sheep. Hygienic practices during milking were found to be better as compared to other similar studies done in the past. About 52.7% and 10.3% of farmers were washing udder of their cows before and after milking respectively. Different plant materials were used for cleaning and smoking of milking and storing utensils to increase the shelf life of milk. Milk was traditionally processed to convert it into more stable products like traditional butter (Kibe), buttermilk (Arrera), cottage cheese (Ayib) and whey (Aguat). These milk products were consumed by the farmers in addition to fresh liquid milk. Milk and milk products were sold both through formal and informal market. Milk was sold both by rural (crop-livestock mixed) and peri-urban farmers in the area. The amount sold was higher for the peri-urban farmers than the rural farmers. Source

Shenkute B.,University of Pretoria | Shenkute B.,Oromia Agricultural Research Institute | Hassen A.,University of Pretoria | Assafa T.,Ethiopian Meat and Dairy Technology Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences

The aim of this study was to identify potential browse species in the mid Rift Valley of Ethiopia and to assess their nutritive value. A total of 120 household from four districts in the mid Rift Valley of Ethiopia were interviewed to identify locally important browse species. Herbarium samples were collected for identification and/or confirmation of the scientific names. Samples were also taken for chemical composition analysis. A total of 18 different browse species were identified, which are regarded as being important for different classes of livestock. The CP value of the edible component ranged between 8.95-20.9%, the NDF values ranged from 30.41-78.55%, the ADF values ranged from 19.42- 47.5%.,and the ADL values ranged from 7.16 to 24.68. Generally the differences in chemical composition between different browse species were significant. These results indicate that there is a number of promising browse species in the indigenous flora. However, apart from chemical composition, they need to be characterized further in terms of palatability, digestibility, feed intake, animal response trials and anti-nutritional factors, in order to be able to enhance their utilization in the future. Source

Shenkute B.,University of Pretoria | Hassen A.,Oromia Agricultural Research Institute | Ebro A.,University of Pretoria | Asafa T.,Ethiopian Meat and Dairy Technology Institute | Amen N.,Sustainable Environment and Development Action SEDA
African Journal of Agricultural Research

This study was conducted with the objective to identify untapped herbaceous flora that were used as livestock feed and to determine their chemical composition in wet season. Twelve peasant associations (PAs) and a total of 120 households were selected for the study. Key informants were also used for vernacular name identification and utilization. Samples were also taken from their edible parts for analysis of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), total ash, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose and lignin. A total of 17 different herbs and forbs were identified which have a feed value for different livestock species. The CP values of species ranged between 10.9 to 27.86% with the highest value being recorded in Sida ovata Forssk. while the lowest value was recorded in Gutenbergia rueppellii Sch.Bip. The NDF value ranged from 26.1 to 53.16%. The highest NDF value was recorded in G. rueppellii Sch.Bip. and the lowest was recorded in Achyranthus aspera L. Generally, the differences within species and among different species in terms of chemical composition of these browses was significant. Some of them contain crude protein content of more than 190 g/kg DM, which has a capacity of supplementing poor quality roughages. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

Gebeyehu A.,Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center | Kebede T.,Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center | Zuber S.,Care International | Gutu T.,Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development

The study was conducted in 2007 in Arsi Negelle and Shashemene districts of West Arsi zone of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to identify major beekeeping challenges and opportunities. For this study 5 peasant associations (PAs) were selected. From each PA a group of 30 to 40 beekeeping farmers was used for implementation of different participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools selected for data collection. The collected data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics. Guizotia scabra, Hypoestes forskali, croton macrostachy are the major honeybee flora in the study area. In both districts, honey is harvested two times a year which varied in period of harvest between highland and lowland areas of the districts. The major honey flow season is November to December and the minor honey flow is from May to June. In both districts' highland areas, the major honey flow season is March to May that is mainly attributed to the flowering season of croton macrostachy and the minor honey flow season is November to December. Shortage of honeybee forage, shortage of honeybee colonies, agrochemical poisoning are the major beekeeping constraints in both districts. Moreover, availability of honeybee enemies (ants, honey badger, bee-eater birds, wax moth, spider and beetles) were reported. The preference ranking matrix indicated that farmers of both districts know little about transitional hives. Beekeeping is considered as one of income source for the beekeepers and it has the 3rd and 4th rank among the other income sources in Arsi Negelle and Shashemene districts respectively. Despite the different challenges encountered in this sub-sector, opportunities for beekeeping development in the areas still exist due to the presence of natural resources, high demand for hive products and development policy attention from the government as one of the strategies to reduce poverty. Source

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