Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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Keneni G.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR | Ahmed S.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2016

Cool-season food legumes, mainly faba bean (Vicia faba), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), field pea (Pisum sativum), lentil (Lens culinaris) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus), are economically and ecologically important crops in many countries. However, a number of biotic stresses (diseases, insects and parasitic weeds) constrain their productivity at farm level. Breeding efforts have been underway for many decades to address these biotic stresses at national and international levels. As a result number of improved varieties are developed and released along with proper crop management and protection practices. Due to the appearances of new pathogen population; absence of resistance sources for pests in the cultigen for pests with wide host range and emerging pests, continued breeding efforts have been required to come up with new cultivars. Molecular markers have started playing a major role to facilitate deploying complex traits to adaptive cultivars background. The purpose of this review is, therefore, to shed light on research progresses and challenges in cool season food legume breeding to major diseases, insect pests and parasitic weeds. © 2016, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.

Wannakrairoj S.,Kasetsart University | Tefera W.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR
Kasetsart Journal - Natural Science | Year: 2012

Siam cardamom, one of the most common spice and medicinal plants in Southeast Asia, is usually propagated by vegetative means. Identifi cation of suitable plant bioregulators for high shoot proliferation and growth rate is one of the most important steps for an effective micropropagation protocol. The axillary bud from the rhizome of Siam cardamom could be used as an explant for micropropagation. High axillary shoot proliferation (mean = 10.25 shoots per explant) and plant growth rate were attained using a modifi ed Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 0.5 mg.L -1 thidiazuron (TDZ) and 2 mg.L -1 imazalil. An MS medium supplemented with 0.75 mg.L -1 TDZ and 3.0 mg.L -1 6-benzyladenine also enhanced shoot multiplication (8.45 shoots per explant). Proliferated shoots successfully elongated and rooted when transferred to the basal MS medium. Inclusion of paclobutrazol to the medium exerted a negative effect on the growth and development of the Siam cardamom.

Mesfin R.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR | Kebede G.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

An on-farm study was carried out with Boran-Friesian and Boran-Jersey crossbred dairy cows maintained under smallholder farmers' condition in mixed farming production system at Jeldu District in West Shoa zone, highlands of Ethiopia. The objective was to demonstrate feeding of urea-molasses treated straw to dairy cattle under farmers' management, to demonstrate improved utilization of crop residues as strategy of improved management of dairy cows for sustainable milk production & reproduction performance and to evaluate the response of smallholder farmers' urea-molasses treatment and feeding of urea-molasses treated straw to dairy cattle. The study was implemented on farmer's management with full follow-up on the research side. Finally, the practice was evaluated based on the analyzed data collected from farmers. A total of 16 households each having improved crossbred dairy cows were selected and the intervention tested. The cows were weighing in a range of 400 ± 20 kg. The experiment was handled in Latin square design. The different breeds were equally distributed between the treatments. The proportions of the ingredients that have been used for the treatment process were a solution of 5kg urea and 10-liter molasses per 100kg barley straw. The cows were fed urea treated straw adlib as basal diet. They were also supplemented with commercial concentrate feeds including mix of 64% wheat bran 35% noug cake and 1% common salt. No statistical difference (P = 0.23) was observed between groups of cows that were fed urea-treated barley straw and those ones fed hay based diet. Fifty percent of the farmers used this technology, have accepted and were willing to continue. The result of this study revealed that feeding urea-molasses treated straw as supplemented with concentrate feeds under on-farm condition could replace the conventional roughage based diet which is hay in feeding milking cows. This is possible provided that the price of urea is affordable and molasses is accessible to the farmers.

Ertiro B.T.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR | Zeleke H.,Haramaya University | Friesen D.,Centro Internacional Of Mejoramiento Of Maiz Y Trigo Cimmyt | Blummel M.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI | Twumasi-Afriyie S.,Centro Internacional Of Mejoramiento Of Maiz Y Trigo Cimmyt
Field Crops Research | Year: 2013

Prediction of hybrid performance from inbred lines per se is crucial in targeted improvement of new traits such as stover fodder quality. The present study investigated the trend in variability and association between food and fodder traits in inbred parents and the hybrids derived from them and assessed the general combining ability (GCA) of inbred lines for both food and fodder traits. Sixteen inbred lines and sixty single cross hybrids generated by a 10×6 factorial mating design were evaluated for grain and stover yield and a range of laboratory stover fodder quality traits across three environments in Ethiopia. The hybrid and inbred line trials were planted in adjacent blocks in the same fields using an alpha lattice experimental design. Genotypes in both hybrids and inbred trials showed highly significant differences for all the traits studied. Generally, hybrids had higher grain and stover yields and lower stover fodder quality traits than the inbred lines. Both the magnitude and direction of relationship for almost all traits were similar among genotypes in the inbred and hybrid trials. General combining abilities of both lines and testers and specific combining ability (SCA) of line by tester interactions were significant for most traits studied. The highly significant GCA effects observed for most traits and the greater relative importance of GCA (lines and testers) as compared to SCA for grain yield and most stover fodder quality traits suggest the importance of additive gene effects in controlling grain and stover yield as well as stover fodder quality. Important stover fodder quality traits such as digestibility and metabolizable energy were highly heritable (h2=0.79-0.81) and the genotypic variations among hybrids in these traits will have implications for productivity of maize stover fed to livestock or for the income of farmers selling maize stover to fodder value chains. Significant positive relationships observed between inbred lines per se and hybrid performances for these fodder quality traits suggest the feasibility of predicting hybrid performance from the performance of the inbred lines. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Bekele B.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR | Hodgetts J.,UK Environment Agency | Tomlinson J.,UK Environment Agency | Boonham N.,UK Environment Agency | And 3 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

A study to investigate the association of phytoplasmas with papaya dieback and citrus decline syndromes in Ethiopia was carried out between July 2009 and February 2010, with sampling performed in major papaya- and citrus-growing areas of the Rift Valley. Samples of plants with symptoms were collected from papaya, citrus and suspected phytoplasma weed hosts and crops in and around the papaya and citrus fields studied. Nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) was used for initial characterization, using primers that amplify regions of the 16S rRNA and secA genes, and results were then confirmed with rapid real-time group-specific LAMP (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) assays. The results identified the occurrence of a phytoplasma belonging to the stolbur (16SrXII-A) group in papaya plants showing dieback symptoms, whilst no phytoplasmas were found associated with citrus decline. These results contradict previous reports that a 16SrII phytoplasma was associated with both papaya dieback and citrus decline in Ethiopia, but correspond with the association of a 16SrXII phytoplasmas with Nivum-Haamir-Dieback of papaya in Israel and papaya dieback in Australia. No 16SrXII phytoplasmas were found in any of the weeds and potential alternative hosts studied, although 16SrII phytoplasmas were consistently found in Parthenium hysterophorus weed plants. These results indicate that a 16SrXII phytoplasma is associated with papaya dieback in Ethiopia, whilst the causal agent of citrus decline is not a phytoplasma and remains unidentified. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Pathology © 2010 BSPP.

Tesfaye A.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Livestock is the essential sector for smallholder farmers in Ethiopia making considerable contributions for rural development as source of livelihoods. However, the potential of the sector is not yet well utilized especially with respect to marketing practices, which is mainly governed by traditional ways of marketing. Prices of livestock at the market are mainly influenced by observable phenotypic attributes while well developed markets depend on measurable attributes, such as weight. The study has identified that body condition and age were the most governing attributes of large ruminants, such as oxen and cows, which affect prices at the market. On the other hand, age and weight were observed to be the most crucial attributes influencing prices of small ruminants, such as sheep and goats. It was also noted that weight and color were essential traits influencing prices of chicken. Age and draught power output were also reported to be fundamental attributes influencing prices of equines. The implication of identifying phenotypic attributes is that feasible options should be designed to sensitize and create awareness of smallholders on how to maximize incomes from marketing of livestock. This can be achieved by introducing and promotion of different applicable and feasible practices. Some of them could be promotion of improved fattening technologies for different species of livestock. Moreover, it is feasible option to organize experience sharing visits to model areas in improved fattening and livestock management practices. In line with this, publication and dissemination of reading materials in local languages, such as leaflets, pamphlets, fliers, posters, manuals and other similar materials would be very crucial especially for households who can read and write. Training of development agents based at grassroots levels on improved fattening, marketing and livestock management practices will contribute to ensure sustainability of supports for smallholders. The eventual effect of these interventions would be enhancing market participation and bargaining power of smallholders, increasing household incomes and contributing to rural development.

Aschalew L.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR | Moog O.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Limnologica | Year: 2015

The study describes the development of a macroinvertebrate based biotic score system (ETHbios) for assessing the ecological status of rivers in the Ethiopian highlands. The ETHbios is basically developed on the principle of the BMWP approach (version of the South African Scoring System) but excludes taxa that don't occur in Ethiopia and includes some of Ethiopian fauna. Macroinvertebrates were collected from 104 sites distributed in a total area about 98,000 square kilometers in the upper Awash, Rift-Valley, Wabi-Shebele and Genale basins. A sensitivity score was assigned to 59 taxa based on guide score, taxon distribution across river quality classes, reference score and autecological knowledge. To define the ranges of the five river quality classes (high, good, moderate, poor and bad), the ETHbios values of sites were correlated with the corresponding ecological status of the sites derived by the Ethiopian Multimetric Index. The validation procedure was done by comparing the ETHbios with selected environmental parameters (conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand and total phosphorus); the analysis showed significantly high correlations (r>. 0.5; p<. 0.05). ETHbios can be considered as rapid, inexpensive but scientifically sound monitoring method that can be used to evaluate the ecological conditions of running waters in the highlands of Ethiopia. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.

Mengesha M.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR | Tamir B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Dessie T.,ILRI
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

This study was conducted in four Peasant Associations in Jamma district. A total of 120 households from four PAs were involved in the study. Ninety eight percent of farmers were supplementing extra feeds and water for their chickens, with the main proportion of food leftover (26.4%) followed by spoiled grain (25.1%). The proportions of households providing supplementary feeding were: 19.8, 21.5, 37.3 and 21.4% in the morning, at noon, afternoon and evening respectively. Most of the households (77.7%) were not giving feeds separately to the flock compositions. Households were practicing of chicken selection with the main characters of egg productivity (35.4) and body weight (38.4%). Majority of households (78%) were using their living room for birds penning at night and women were more (72%) responsible for flock management. The larger eggs with oval shape and smooth in eggshell were the preferred characters in selection of incubating eggs. Farmers (38%) adapted a practice of mixing local eggs with exotic or crossbred eggs while incubating for better hatchability of exotic or crossbred eggs. Around 73% the respondents reported that the highest mortality of chicks was occurring up to 2 weeks of age. But around 12.6% of the households were treating their sick birds with traditional-treatments. Ninety-one per cent of farmers pointed out that more frequently occurring and devastating disease was Newcastle Disease.

Lakew A.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR | Moog O.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2015

This study presents the development of a multimetric index using benthic macroinvertebrates (BMI) to assess the ecological health of highland rivers in Ethiopia. BMI were collected from 22 reference and 82 impaired sites determined based on hydro-morphological, land use, and physical and chemical criteria. Of 75 potential metrics tested to integrate the multimetric index, only nine core metrics were selected based on their abilities to distinguish reference and impaired sites, strength of correlation with pertinent environmental parameters, and their independence from other metrics. The metrics retained in the multimetric index were total number of taxa, EPT-BH > 1sp (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa where Baetidae and Hydropsychidae taxa are considered if they consist more than one taxon), % Oligochaeta and Red Chironomidae, % COPTE (Coleoptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, and Ephemeroptera), % EPT-BCH (EPT without Baetidae, Caenidae, and Hydropsychidae), ASPT-SASS (Average South African Scoring System Per Taxa), FBI (Family Biotic Index), % shredders, and % collector gathering. The final index derived from these metrics was divided into five river quality class (high, good, moderate, poor, and bad). A validation procedure showed that the index is stable along different hydrological conditions and sensitive to the current range of anthropogenic disturbances in Ethiopian highland rivers. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Gebre E.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR | Gugsa L.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR | Schluter U.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Kunert K.,University of Pretoria
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Successful application of genetic transformation for integration of a transgene is much dependent upon availability of an efficient in vitro plant regeneration procedure and detection of transgene insertion and expression. Isolated immature embryos (IEs) of Eragrostis tef cultivar DZ-01-196 were used for embryogenic callus formation and the callus was transformed with GA inactivating gene PcGA2ox under the control of a triple CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium transformation procedure. Embryogenic callus was induced from immature embryos in a medium containing KBP minerals in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxiyacetic acid. The embryogenic calli were further inoculated with Agrobacterium and the calli were grown in co-cultivation medium (CCM) followed by selection in KBP and regeneration (K4NB) media. Putatively transformed E. tef embryogenic calli were tolerant to treatment with the selectable marker kanamycin, while 75mgl-1 geneticin inhibited growth of non-transformed shoots derived from matured embryos completely after 12days. A total of 55 plants were regenerated from all the embryogenic calli to fully viable plants setting seeds at maturity. Eight putatively transformed T0 plants were produced carrying the transgene in their genome which was detected by PCR. Sequence analysis confirmed amplified PCR products to have 97.2 and 99.8% sequence identity to PcGA2ox and nptII, respectively. However, detection of the transgene, PcGA2ox or nptII, in T1 plants was inconsistent although phenotypic analysis of T1 plants showed changes in pheno-morphic and agronomic characters such as plant height, number of internodes, tillering, panicle length, biomass, yield as well as GA content. Culm reduction was due to absence of elongation of the upper-most internodes. Panicle length in semi-dwarfed plants showed no relation with culm length. GA analysis showed plants with semi-dwarf phenotype to be associated with a low level of bioactive GA1 and its immediate precursors. Up to 3.7 fold increase in grain yield per plant was found in some semi-dwarfed plants. © 2013 South African Association of Botanists.

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