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Negussie T.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research | Pretorius Z.A.,University of the Free State
Crop Protection | Year: 2012

Lentil is an important component of farming systems in many countries. It enriches soil fertility through nitrogen fixation and green manuring, and serves as a source of dietary protein and other essential micronutrients in human nutrition. Rust, caused by the fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae, is damaging to lentil crops and limits production in many countries. A general review of lentil rust was published in 1998. In the present review, an account of the current state of research on lentil rust, caused by U. viciae-fabae, is provided. The review deals with lentil rust symptoms, economic importance, taxonomy, geographic distribution of the disease, host range, physiologic races, mechanism of attack, epidemiology and disease management, as well as some elements of future research. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Mengesha M.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research
Asian Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2012

This study reviews all attributes of feed-food competition and enforced-demands of foods of animal origin with the aim of delivering synthesized information for beneficiaries. Population, urbanization and rising incomes are expected to double the demands for livestock products in the developing countries. Based on the demands, there has been a rise in the production of livestock products in the world; however, this overall increase isn't occurring in the poorer African countries, rather declining. With increased production of animal products, there will be also increased demands for feeds. Moreover, increased mono-gastric populations and intensive feeding systems with improved genotypes resulted in a greater demand for concentrate feeds. Since, most production cost of poultry is based on concentrated feeds; this sector has been facing a problem of feed-food competition for those non grain self-sufficient countries. Thus, major poultry feed ingredients have been facing market competition with human food demands of poor countries like Ethiopia. To cope up with this feed-food competition, those poor feeds needs to be technically treated to improving nutritional values and moreover, institutional collaborations and support is demanding in order to facilitate for alternative feed utilizations. Use of biotechnology in animal production also improves feed utilization and productivity. Moreover, advanced concept of biotechnology is still to making edible products from outside the animals. It is conclude that responsible institutions should gear their program and responsibility towards to solving a problem of feed-food competition and dependency for importing improved chicken breeds. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Mengesha M.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research
Asian Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2012

This study reviews related research results and facts of indigenous chicken production and their innate characteristics with the aim of delivering synthesized and summarized information to the beneficiaries. Poultry contributes the largest parts of animal-source foods. Chicken is the most constituents of poultry species in Africa and the locals are the most commonly distributed across every corner of the tropical countries. Relatively, indigenous chickens have a capacity to resist disease, able to utilize low quality feeds and their products are preferred by consumers. In Ethiopia, indigenous chicken production system is a traditional type which is characterized by small flock size and is usually affected by disease outbreaks. Sharing the house of a family is the farmers' sheltering method of chickens at night and scavenging is the main source of feeds with unplanned breeding practices. Over the years, poultry populations and per capita consumption of eggs and poultry meat has been declining in Ethiopia. Indigenous chickens have a large morphological variation. Overtimes, social cultures and beliefs of most of the community have been influenced by these morphological variations. Those, indigenous birds which have got red or white plumage colors combined with pea shaped comb-types always fetches higher price than their counterparts. The result showed that micro-satellites of indigenous chicken population were highly polymorphic. Generally, the huge gene pool resources should be protected from genetic erosion and be used for improvement through traditional selections together with genomic technology. It is concluded that any indigenous chicken improving program should incorporate the production objectives and traits preferences of the society. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc. Source

On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors. Source

Cook S.,International Institute for Environment and Development | Lu J.,China Agricultural University | Tugendhat H.,University of Sussex | Alemu D.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research
World Development | Year: 2016

This paper makes an empirical and ethnographic contribution to the literature on Chinese migrants in Africa by using five case studies to explore their role in the agri-food sector in Ethiopia and Ghana. We find that the realities of Chinese migrants in this sector matches neither popular media stereotypes of empire building and land grabbing, nor Chinese government narratives of South-South cooperation, technology transfer, and agricultural development. Far from being a "silent army" promoting larger Chinese state objectives, they operate independently and serve no agenda other than their own. Many migrants have little if any contact with the Chinese Embassy or other official Chinese presence in Africa. While none of our informants have received support from the Chinese government, they are nonetheless affected by government regulatory frameworks in African countries and their activities are shaped accordingly. The regulatory policy environment is very different in the two countries, and this has implications for the livelihood strategies of Chinese migrants. While the impacts of their presence on local development are modest overall, these impacts do appear to be positive in the sense that they are creating economic opportunities, both for themselves and for local people. © 2016 The Authors. Source

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