Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research

Debre Zeyit, Ethiopia

Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research

Debre Zeyit, Ethiopia
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Tibebe D.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2011

This study evaluates surface runoff generation and soil erosion rates for a small watershed (the Keleta Watershed) in the Awash River basin of Ethiopia by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Calibration and validation of the model was performed on monthly basis, and it could simulate surface runoff and soil erosion to a good level of accuracy. The simulated surface runoff closely matched with observed data (derived by hydrograph separation). Surface runoff generation was generally high in parts of the watershed characterized by heavy clay soils with low infiltration capacity, agricultural land use and slope gradients of over 25 per cent. The estimated soil loss rates were also realistic compared to what can be observed in the field and results from previous studies. The long-term average soil loss was estimated at 4·3tha -1y -1; most of the area of the watershed (~80 per cent) was predicted to suffer from a low or moderate erosion risk (<8tha -1y -1), and only in ~1·2 per cent of the watershed was soil erosion estimated to exceed 12tha -1y -1. Expectedly, estimated soil loss was significantly correlated with measured rainfall and simulated surface runoff. Based on the estimated soil loss rates, the watershed was divided into four priority categories for conservation intervention. The study demonstrates that the SWAT model provides a useful tool for soil erosion assessment from watersheds and facilitates planning for a sustainable land management in Ethiopia. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Cook S.,International Institute for Environment and Development | Lu J.,China Agricultural University | Tugendhat H.,University of Sussex | Alemu D.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research
World Development | Year: 2016

This paper makes an empirical and ethnographic contribution to the literature on Chinese migrants in Africa by using five case studies to explore their role in the agri-food sector in Ethiopia and Ghana. We find that the realities of Chinese migrants in this sector matches neither popular media stereotypes of empire building and land grabbing, nor Chinese government narratives of South-South cooperation, technology transfer, and agricultural development. Far from being a "silent army" promoting larger Chinese state objectives, they operate independently and serve no agenda other than their own. Many migrants have little if any contact with the Chinese Embassy or other official Chinese presence in Africa. While none of our informants have received support from the Chinese government, they are nonetheless affected by government regulatory frameworks in African countries and their activities are shaped accordingly. The regulatory policy environment is very different in the two countries, and this has implications for the livelihood strategies of Chinese migrants. While the impacts of their presence on local development are modest overall, these impacts do appear to be positive in the sense that they are creating economic opportunities, both for themselves and for local people. © 2016 The Authors.

Negussie T.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research | Pretorius Z.A.,University of the Free State
Crop Protection | Year: 2012

Lentil is an important component of farming systems in many countries. It enriches soil fertility through nitrogen fixation and green manuring, and serves as a source of dietary protein and other essential micronutrients in human nutrition. Rust, caused by the fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae, is damaging to lentil crops and limits production in many countries. A general review of lentil rust was published in 1998. In the present review, an account of the current state of research on lentil rust, caused by U. viciae-fabae, is provided. The review deals with lentil rust symptoms, economic importance, taxonomy, geographic distribution of the disease, host range, physiologic races, mechanism of attack, epidemiology and disease management, as well as some elements of future research. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Mengesha M.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research
Asian Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2012

This study reviews all attributes of feed-food competition and enforced-demands of foods of animal origin with the aim of delivering synthesized information for beneficiaries. Population, urbanization and rising incomes are expected to double the demands for livestock products in the developing countries. Based on the demands, there has been a rise in the production of livestock products in the world; however, this overall increase isn't occurring in the poorer African countries, rather declining. With increased production of animal products, there will be also increased demands for feeds. Moreover, increased mono-gastric populations and intensive feeding systems with improved genotypes resulted in a greater demand for concentrate feeds. Since, most production cost of poultry is based on concentrated feeds; this sector has been facing a problem of feed-food competition for those non grain self-sufficient countries. Thus, major poultry feed ingredients have been facing market competition with human food demands of poor countries like Ethiopia. To cope up with this feed-food competition, those poor feeds needs to be technically treated to improving nutritional values and moreover, institutional collaborations and support is demanding in order to facilitate for alternative feed utilizations. Use of biotechnology in animal production also improves feed utilization and productivity. Moreover, advanced concept of biotechnology is still to making edible products from outside the animals. It is conclude that responsible institutions should gear their program and responsibility towards to solving a problem of feed-food competition and dependency for importing improved chicken breeds. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.

Mengesha M.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research
Asian Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2012

This study reviews related research results and facts of indigenous chicken production and their innate characteristics with the aim of delivering synthesized and summarized information to the beneficiaries. Poultry contributes the largest parts of animal-source foods. Chicken is the most constituents of poultry species in Africa and the locals are the most commonly distributed across every corner of the tropical countries. Relatively, indigenous chickens have a capacity to resist disease, able to utilize low quality feeds and their products are preferred by consumers. In Ethiopia, indigenous chicken production system is a traditional type which is characterized by small flock size and is usually affected by disease outbreaks. Sharing the house of a family is the farmers' sheltering method of chickens at night and scavenging is the main source of feeds with unplanned breeding practices. Over the years, poultry populations and per capita consumption of eggs and poultry meat has been declining in Ethiopia. Indigenous chickens have a large morphological variation. Overtimes, social cultures and beliefs of most of the community have been influenced by these morphological variations. Those, indigenous birds which have got red or white plumage colors combined with pea shaped comb-types always fetches higher price than their counterparts. The result showed that micro-satellites of indigenous chicken population were highly polymorphic. Generally, the huge gene pool resources should be protected from genetic erosion and be used for improvement through traditional selections together with genomic technology. It is concluded that any indigenous chicken improving program should incorporate the production objectives and traits preferences of the society. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.

On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors.

Gebretsadik Z.M.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research
Journal of Flood Risk Management | Year: 2014

Watershed degradation has resulted in high risk of erosion followed by risk of flooding in the lowlands and has become the most livelihoods' threatening factor in Ethiopia in general and in the fragile watersheds of Hawassa Zuria District in particular. The objectives of this study were: (a) to assess farmers' practices of land, water and biomass management in order to improve their livelihoods; (b) to assess the existing risks and interventions and the condition of the watershed; (c) to assess the socio-economic patterns of the farmers in the watershed. A group discussion with different stakeholders, key informant interviews and observational survey through transect walks have been used as methods of data collection. The study result has shown that the most threatening factor of degradation is gully erosion due to vegetation removal from the watershed. About 94% of the farmers used and agreed that they stabilised gullies by physical and biological measures; 60% and 88% of the respondents, respectively have indicated diversion of run-off above the gully and improvement of gully catchments as a means of gully erosion measures and reduce flooding risks in the lowlands. Community awareness creation on natural resource conservation and management as well as resolving tenure disagreements can also play role in gully control and land rehabilitation. © 2013 The Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management (CIWEM) and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Girma D.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research | Korbu L.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research
Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

With 5 figures and 3 tables Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is an important crop in Ethiopia. Its vital importance in the Ethiopian agriculture emanates from its resistance to drought, salinity, waterlogging and low soil fertility. However, low levels of the amino acids methionine and tryptophan and the presence of the neurotoxin β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropanoic acid (ODAP) in the seeds are the major limitations of the crop. Genetic improvement of grass pea in Ethiopia has been started in the 1960s at Holetta Agricultural Research Center. The major objectives of the grass pea research were to develop and promote high-yielding cultivars with low ODAP content coupled with improved management production packages. However, the 50years of on-station and on-farm research was not successful in producing outstanding varieties with the desired traits. Compared to other grain legumes, the poor success of varietal development endeavours within the context of grass pea improvement philosophy is typically related to the failure of the conventional breeding approach to fix a zero or low ODAP content because this trait is highly influenced by climatic and edaphic environment. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Mengesha M.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research
Asian Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2011

Related research results and facts of climate change scenarios and the preferences of animal species that reared for animal protein productions were reviewed with the aim of delivering synthesized information for the beneficiaries. Both of the climate change and animal productions have always negative impacts one over the other. Livestock is responsible for 18% of GHG emissions measured in CO 2-eq. Upcoming animal protein supply and demands will pose a challenge to the environment. However, due to its low global warming potential, poultry has advantages over other livestock industries. Chicken is the cheapest, without taboos and nutritious of all livestock meats but the red meat industry is a pro-active for environmental concerns. Birds, however, tolerates a narrow temperature ranges and are vulnerable to climate changes. There is a positive relationship between the level of income and the consumption of animal proteins. As a result, animal protein production is projected to double by 2050. Consequently, poultry consumption is expected to grow at 2-3% per year and its share is also around 33% of the total meat produced in the world. The average per capita consumption of poultry is around 11 kg. Technology favors the intensification of poultry production in developing countries but environment and health issues will be the concern. A grain yield is adversely affected by warming that leads to food-feed competitions. This competition gives rise to looking for alternative feeds and other utilizing techniques to improving the nutritive values of poor ingredients. It needs 2 and 4 kg of cereals, to produce 1 kg of chicken meat and pork, respectively. This shows that chicken is relatively efficient in feed conversion ratio than other livestock. It is therefore, concluded that to coping up with climate changes, poultry is the preferred species of farm animals that allowed for protein food productions. Moreover, it is also the preferred species of farm animal that will satisfy the demands of protein foods of the people. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.

Abebe W.,University of Valladolid | Abebe W.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research | Ronda F.,University of Valladolid
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2014

Interest in tef [. Eragrostis tef (Zucc.)Trotter] grain in food applications has increased in recent years because of its nutritional merits and the absence of gluten. With the objective of evaluating the suitability of tef for making gel type food products, gel viscoelastic properties of three varieties of tef (one brown and two white) at different concentrations (6, 8, 10, 12 & 14% w/w) were evaluated at 25°C and 90°C. The texture and color evolution for 16% (w/w) gels were evaluated. Proximate compositions of the flours were quantified. Rice, refined and whole wheat flours were analyzed as reference. The minimum flour concentration required for gel formation from the three tef varieties was 6-8%, similar to wheat flour. All tef flour suspensions pre-heated to 95°C led to gels with a solid-like behavior (G'>G″), both at 25°C and 90°C, with higher consistency than wheat gels at the same concentration. The dependence of viscoelastic moduli with concentration fulfilled the power law. The Avrami model was successfully fitted to the textural evolution of tef gels. Important differences were observed among tef and rice and wheat flours, probably contributed by their differences in protein, starch, lipid and fiber constituents. Gelling properties characterized suggest that tef flours would be suitable ingredients in gel food formulations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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