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Scantlebury C.E.,University Institute of Health Sciences | Zerfu A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Zerfu A.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute EDRI | Pinchbeck G.P.,University Institute of Health Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

Epizootic lymphangitis (EZL) is reported to have a significant impact upon livelihoods within resource-poor settings. This study used a participatory approach to explore peoples' experiences of EZL and examine the perceived impact of disease, owner knowledge and understanding of EZL, lay management of disease and, attitudes and strategies towards disease prevention.Focus-group discussions were held with 358 cart-horse owners and drivers recruited from 7 towns attended by SPANA (Society for the protection of animals abroad) mobile veterinary clinics and 2 unexposed towns where no SPANA clinics were available. Focus group discussions explored four main research questions: (1) Is EZL recognised by animal owners, and is this considered an important disease in equids? (2) What factors do animal owners associate with the development of disease? (3) What happens to an animal with clinical disease and how does this impact upon the owner/community? (4) Are measures taken to reduce disease occurrence? These key areas were explored using photographs, disease ranking, matrices and open discussion. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis.The results are presented thematically and include: recognition and descriptions of EZL, treatment strategies used, disease priorities and ranking, impact of disease, disease transmission and attitudes and approaches to disease prevention.EZL was widely recognised and ranked highly as an important disease of equids. However, there was uncertainty around identifying early cases of EZL, and this could impact upon the timing of initiating treatment and separating potentially infectious animals. People had varying knowledge of effective methods for disease prevention and reported particular difficulties with isolating infected animals.The impact of EZL was multi-dimensional and encompassed effects upon the horse, the individual owner and the wider society. Working equids provide a vital utility and source of income to many people in resource-poor settings. Often, infection with EZL resulted in a reduction in working ability which had a direct impact upon the livelihoods of owners and their dependent family members. EZL also impacted upon the welfare of the horse as sick animals continued to be worked and, in advanced cases, horses were abandoned due to ineffective or unavailable treatment.This study conceptualises the importance of EZL due to the effects of the disease on the horse and its impact upon human livelihoods. Epizootic lymphangitis is a neglected disease that requires further investigation in order to develop practical and sustainable disease control strategies within endemic regions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Scantlebury C.E.,University of Liverpool | Zerfu A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Zerfu A.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute EDRI | Pinchbeck G.P.,University of Liverpool | And 5 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

Epizootic lymphangitis (EZL) is reported to have a significant impact upon livelihoods within resource-poor settings. This study used a participatory approach to explore peoples' experiences of EZL and examine the perceived impact of disease, owner knowledge and understanding of EZL, lay management of disease and, attitudes and strategies towards disease prevention.Focus-group discussions were held with 358 cart-horse owners and drivers recruited from 7 towns attended by SPANA (Society for the protection of animals abroad) mobile veterinary clinics and 2 unexposed towns where no SPANA clinics were available. Focus group discussions explored four main research questions: (1) Is EZL recognised by animal owners, and is this considered an important disease in equids? (2) What factors do animal owners associate with the development of disease? (3) What happens to an animal with clinical disease and how does this impact upon the owner/community? (4) Are measures taken to reduce disease occurrence? These key areas were explored using photographs, disease ranking, matrices and open discussion. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis.The results are presented thematically and include: recognition and descriptions of EZL, treatment strategies used, disease priorities and ranking, impact of disease, disease transmission and attitudes and approaches to disease prevention.EZL was widely recognised and ranked highly as an important disease of equids. However, there was uncertainty around identifying early cases of EZL, and this could impact upon the timing of initiating treatment and separating potentially infectious animals. People had varying knowledge of effective methods for disease prevention and reported particular difficulties with isolating infected animals.The impact of EZL was multi-dimensional and encompassed effects upon the horse, the individual owner and the wider society. Working equids provide a vital utility and source of income to many people in resource-poor settings. Often, infection with EZL resulted in a reduction in working ability which had a direct impact upon the livelihoods of owners and their dependent family members. EZL also impacted upon the welfare of the horse as sick animals continued to be worked and, in advanced cases, horses were abandoned due to ineffective or unavailable treatment.This study conceptualises the importance of EZL due to the effects of the disease on the horse and its impact upon human livelihoods. Epizootic lymphangitis is a neglected disease that requires further investigation in order to develop practical and sustainable disease control strategies within endemic regions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Weldesilassie A.B.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute EDRI | Boelee E.,SRI International | Drechsel P.,SRI International | Dabbert S.,University of Hohenheim
Environment and Development Economics | Year: 2011

Using stream water polluted with untreated wastewater in agriculture is controversial due to its combination of benefits and negative health impacts. Using data from a household survey, wastewater and freshwater farmers were analysed comparatively to examine the perceived impacts of irrigation water quality on farmers' health and to evaluate the extent of health damage. Probability of illness was estimated using the theory of utility-maximising behaviour of households subject to the conventional farm household production model, augmented by adding a health production function. Reduced model and instrumental variable probit specifications both show that perceived illness prevalence is significantly higher for household members working on wastewater irrigation farms than for those working with freshwater. Our data entails econometric complications (e.g., endogeneity of farmers' behaviour, unobserved location-specific characteristics). Ignoring these will result in underestimation of the value of policy interventions designed to reduce potential health damage of wastewater use in irrigation. © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source


Gebreegziabher Z.,Mekelle University | Gebreegziabher Z.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute EDRI | van Kooten G.C.,University of Victoria
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2013

As a result of many years of deforestation, fuelwood scarcity is a critical problem in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian government encouraged afforestation and tree growing at both the community and household levels as a policy to stem deforestation and degradation of agricultural lands. The rationale underlying the tree growing strategy is that some significant part of whatever is planted will be used as fuelwood, thereby reducing the demand for wood from native forestlands and use of crop residues and animal dung needed for soil improvement. It is incumbent, however, to ask: Does household or community tree planting indeed translate into greater use of wood for fuel? To address this question, fuelwood consumption in Ethiopia is examined using datasets from sample cross-sections of 500 households and 100 communities in the highlands of Tigrai, northern Ethiopia. The results of such an analysis provide important insights into the potential effectiveness of the tree growing or afforestation strategy as a partial remedy to the country's fuel problems. Findings suggest, however, that there may not be a link between tree planting and the use of such fiber for fuelwood. •We assess role of Ethiopia's afforestation strategy as remedy to fuel problem.•There isn't necessary link between tree planting and use of such fiber for fuelwood.•Tree planting may not necessarily compete with other land uses.•Might be better that the afforestation strategy targets indigenous tree species. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Gebreeyesus M.,Maastricht University | Gebreeyesus M.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute EDRI
Agricultural Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

Global trade in agriculture and food products is increasingly governed by an array of standards. In order to continue exporting, developing countries have little choice but to comply with the new requirements. This study uses a census based panel data set from the nascent floriculture industry in Ethiopia to empirically examine the determinants of firms' adoption of international private standards in fresh horticulture produce in large-scale estate farms. The econometric analysis shows that larger size, older, and foreign owned firms are more likely to adopt the private standards. Moreover, this study analyzes the overall industry level efforts and public-private partnership to launch and implement a national scheme GAP and build a firm's capacity to comply with the standards. © 2015 International Association of Agricultural Economists. Source

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