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Wakeyo M.B.,Wageningen University | Wakeyo M.B.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute | Gardebroek C.,Wageningen University
Journal of Arid Environments | Year: 2015

This study analyses disadoption of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia where the average disadoption rate in the sample areas is as high as 42%. Given that Ethiopia is a drought-prone country with 95% of its crop production being rain-fed, such a high disadoption rate for irrigation technologies is surprising and urges investigation. Using panel data on 332 Ethiopian farm households collected in 2005 and 2010 we estimate a logit model to identify factors underlying disadoption. We find farm-household, economic, technology-specific, and natural condition variables that relate to disadoption. Mainly, shortage of plastic-sheets, altitude, and distance to market increase disadoption whereas education, experience with water harvesting (learning-by-doing), farm profit, availability of family labour, access to credit, ease of selling output, growing perennial crops, and distance from natural water sources decrease the probability of disadoption. There is no evidence that malaria has a significant effect on disadoption. Based on these findings, improved supply of plastic sheets and motor pumps, and advise to farmers on appropriate crops, credit and improved market accesses could contribute to decreasing disadoption of water harvesting technologies. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Alem Y.,Gothenburg University | Beyene A.D.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute | Kohlin G.,Gothenburg University | Mekonnen A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Energy Economics | Year: 2016

We use three rounds of a rich panel data set to investigate the determinants of household cooking fuel choice and energy transition in urban Ethiopia. We observe that the expected energy transition did not occur following economic growth in Ethiopia during the decade 2000–2009. Regression results from a random effects multinomial logit model, which controls for unobserved household heterogeneity, show that households' economic status, price of alternative energy sources, and education are important determinants of fuel choice in urban Ethiopia. The results also suggest the use of multiple fuels, or ‘fuel stacking behavior’. We argue that policy makers could target these policy levers to encourage transition to cleaner energy sources. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Mulatu D.W.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute | van Oel P.R.,Wageningen University | van der Veen A.,University of Twente
Water International | Year: 2015

A valuation scenario was designed using a contingent-valuation approach and presented to decision makers in business firms in Kenya’s Lake Naivasha basin to test how applicable a water fund might be as a potential financing mechanism for a payment for water-related ecosystem services scheme. The findings indicate that measuring a firm’s willingness to invest in ecosystem services could help determine whether a firm would invest and engage with other stakeholders to pool their investments in ecosystem services. Linking the institutional decision-making behaviour of a firm and its willingness to invest in a water fund is the novelty of this article. © 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.


Gebreegziabher Z.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute | Gebreegziabher Z.,Mekelle University | Gebremedhin B.,International Livestock Research Institute | Mekonnen A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Environment and Development Economics | Year: 2012

Land is an essential factor of production. Institutions that govern its efficient use determine the sustainability of this essential resource. In Ethiopia all land is publicly owned. Such an institutional setting is said to have resulted in the major degradation of Ethiopia's land resources and dissipation of the resource rent. An alternative to this is assigning a private property institution. In this paper, we examine the consumer welfare effects of a change in the institutional setting on communal forest and grazing lands, using a cross-section data set of 200 households in Northern Ethiopia. Findings suggest that changing the current institutional setting could indeed be welfare reducing. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.


Minten B.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Tamru S.,Catholic University of Leuven | Engida E.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute | Kuma T.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute
Journal of Development Studies | Year: 2016

We study changes in the last decade in the teff value chain, Ethiopia’s most important staple food crop by area and value. Upstream, there is increasing adoption of modern inputs and new varieties – especially by those farmers living close to cities – leading to higher land productivity. Mid- and downstream, we find improved processing costs and increasing willingness-to-pay for convenience and quality, as illustrated by the emergence of one-stop retail shops and the rise of more expensive teff varieties. Because of the large numbers of teff producers and consumers, this transformation has important implications on the country’s food security. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Spielman D.J.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Davis K.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Negash M.,Catholic University of Leuven | Ayele G.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute
Agriculture and Human Values | Year: 2011

Ethiopian agriculture is changing as new actors, relationships, and policies influence the ways in which small-scale, resource-poor farmers access and use information and knowledge in their agricultural production decisions. Although these changes suggest new opportunities for smallholders, too little is known about how changes will ultimately improve the wellbeing of smallholders in Ethiopia. Thus, we examine whether these changes are improving the ability of smallholders to innovate and thus improve their own welfare. In doing so, we analyze interactions between smallholders and other actors to provide new perspectives on the role played by smallholder innovation networks in the agricultural sector by drawing on data from community case studies conducted in 10 localities. Findings suggest that public extension and administration exert a strong influence over smallholder networks, potentially crowding out market-based and civil society actors, and thus limiting beneficial innovation processes. From a policy perspective, the findings suggest the need to further explore policies and programs that create more space for market and civil society to participate in smallholder innovation networks and improve welfare. From a conceptual and methodological perspective, our findings suggest the need to incorporate rigorous applications of social network analysis into the application of innovation systems theory. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Dufwenberg M.,University of Arizona | Dufwenberg M.,Gothenburg University | Kohlin G.,Gothenburg University | Martinsson P.,Gothenburg University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | Year: 2016

Land conflicts in developing countries are costly both directly and through increased land degradation. An important policy goal is to create respect for borders. This often involves mandatory, expensive interventions. We propose a new policy design, which in theory promotes neighborly relations at low cost. A salient feature is the option to by-pass regulation through consensus. The key idea combines the insight that social preferences transform social dilemmas into coordination problems with the logic of forward induction. As a first, low-cost pass at empirical evaluation, we conduct an experiment among farmers in the Ethiopian highlands, a region exhibiting features typical of countries where borders are often disputed. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Headey D.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Dereje M.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute | Taffesse A.S.,International Food Policy Research Institute
Food Policy | Year: 2014

Highland Ethiopia is one of the most densely populated regions of Africa and has long been associated with both Malthusian disasters and Boserupian agricultural intensification. This paper explores the race between these two countervailing forces, with the goal of inform two important policy questions. First, how do rural Ethiopians adapt to land constraints? And second, do land constraints significantly influence welfare outcomes in rural Ethiopia? To answer these questions we use a recent household survey of high-potential areas. We first show that farm sizes are generally very small in the Ethiopian highlands and declining over time, with young rural households facing particularly severe land constraints. We then ask whether smaller and declining farm sizes are inducing agricultural intensification, and if so, how. We find strong evidence in favor of the Boserupian hypothesis that land-constrained villages typically use significantly more purchased input costs per hectare and more family labor, and achieve higher maize and teff yields and higher gross income per hectare. However, although these higher inputs raise gross revenue, we find no substantial impact of greater land constraints on net farm income per hectare once family labor costs are accounted for. Moreover, farm sizes are strongly positively correlated with net farm income, suggesting that land constraints are an important cause of rural poverty. We conclude with some broad policy implications of our results. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Minten B.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Koru B.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute | Stifel D.,Lafayette College
Agricultural Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2013

Increasing adoption of modern inputs remains one of the best hopes for greater agricultural production in developing countries. Based on unique data from northwestern Ethiopia, this study examines the "last mile(s)"-from the input distribution center to the farmer-in the chemical fertilizer and improved seed distribution system. We find that increasing transaction and transportation costs over a 35 km distance, along a route mainly accessible to only foot traffic, lead to a 50% increase of the price of chemical fertilizer and to a 75% reduction in its use. Farmers who live about 10 km from the distribution center face per unit transaction and transportation costs as high as the costs needed to bring the fertilizer from the international port to the input distribution center (about 1,000 km). Tackling the "last mile(s)" costs should thus be a priority to improve modern input adoption and use in these settings. © 2013 International Association of Agricultural Economists.


Gebreegziabher Z.,Ethiopian Development Research Institute | Gebreegziabher Z.,Mekelle University | Mekonnen A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Kassie M.,CIMMYT | Kohlin G.,Gothenburg University
Energy Economics | Year: 2012

Dependency of urban Ethiopian households on rural areas for about 85% of their fuel needs is a significant cause of deforestation and forest degradation, resulting in growing fuel scarcity and higher firewood prices. One response to reducing the pressure on rural lands is for urban households to switch fuel sources, for example, from wood fuel to electricity, to slow deforestation and forest degradation and reduce indoor air pollution. However, such an energy transition is conditioned on the adoption of appropriate cooking appliances or stove technologies by the majority of users. This paper investigates urban energy transition and technology adoption conditions using a dataset of 350 urban households in Tigrai, in northern Ethiopia. Results suggest that the transition to electricity is affected by households adopting the electric mitad cooking appliance, which in turn is influenced by the level of education and income, among other things. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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