Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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Mohammed S.,Alage Agricultural Technical and Vocational Education Training College | Urge M.,Haramaya University | Animut G.,Haramaya University | Awigechew K.,Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

Eighteen Arsi-Bale (local) and 18 Boer × Arsi-Bale (crossbred) male goats, initially approximately 10 months of age, were used in a 12-week experiment to investigate potential interactions between genotype and nutritional plane in growth performance, carcass and skin characteristics, and mass of non-carcass components. Grass hay (6.7% crude protein and 71.9% neutral detergent fiber) was consumed ad libitum supplemented with 150, 300, or 450 g/day (dry matter; low, moderate, and high, respectively) of a concentrate mixture (50% wheat bran, 49% noug seed cake, and 1% salt). Initial body weight was 20.7 and 14.0 kg for crossbred and local goats, respectively (SE = 0.36). Hay dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.05) for crossbred vs. local goats (461 and 429 g/day) and similar among concentrate levels (438, 444, and 451 g/day for high, moderate, and low, respectively; SE = 4.7). Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for crossbred than for local goats (36.6 and 20.8 g) and differed (P < 0.05) among each level of concentrate (43.7, 29.6, and 12.8 g for high, moderate, and low, respectively). Dressing percentage was similar between genotypes (41.1% and 41.1% live body weight for crossbred and local goats, respectively; SE = 0.59) and greater (P < 0.05) for high vs. low (43.5% vs. 38.7% live body weight). Carcass weight differed (P < 0.05) between genotypes (9.23 and 6.23 kg for crossbred and local goats, respectively) and high and low (8.80 and 6.66 kg, respectively). Carcass concentrations of physically dissectible lean and fat were similar between genotypes and high and low concentrate levels. There were few differences between genotypes or concentrate levels in other carcass characteristics such as color and skin properties. Relative to empty body weight, the mass of most non-carcass tissues and organs did not differ between genotypes. However, the low concentrate-level mass of omental-mesenteric fat was greater (P < 0.05) for local vs. crossbred goats (1.06% vs. 0.54% empty body weight, respectively). In conclusion, growth performance and carcass weight advantages from crossing Boer and Arsi-Bale goats were similar with a low-quality basal grass hay diet regardless of level of supplemental concentrate. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Merera C.,Hawassa University | Merera C.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Abebe G.,Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program | Sebsibe A.,Ethiopian Meat and Dairy Technology Institute | Goetsch A.L.,Langston University
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2010

Yearling sheep from Highland (Arsi-Bale, H) and Lowland (Black Head Ogaden, L) areas of Ethiopia were used to determine effects and interactions of animal origin, feeding and lengths of rest and feeding on harvest measures. Ten sheep of each origin were rested for 1, 2 or 3d after arrival at the abattoir and before slaughter with ad libitum availability of grass hay and water and an overnight fast preceding slaughter. Eighteen to 20 sheep of each origin were fed for 2, 4 or 6 weeks in length with ad libitum grass hay and a concentrate supplement at 220 g/day per animal. There was an interaction (P<0.05) between origin and the linear effect of feeding period length in average daily gain, with a much greater value for H-F2 compared with other treatments (209, 120, 125, 118, 90 and 113 g/day for H-F2, H-F4, H-F6, L-F2, L-F4 and L-F6, respectively). Hot carcass weight increased linearly with increasing length of rest (P<0.05), with a tendency (P<0.09) for greater change for H vs L animals and the effect (P<0.05) of feeding vs rest (8.09, 8.34, 8.73, 7.88, 8.19, 8.02, 9.08, 8.54, 9.13, 8.17, 8.03 and 8.57 kg for H-Rl, H-R2, H-R3, L-Rl, L-R2, L-R3, H-F2, H-F4, H-F6, L-F2, L-F4 and L-F6, respectively). Carcass pH or instrumental color did not change due to treatment. In conclusion, there is considerable opportunity to increase carcass weight of H by manipulating periods of rest after arrival at the abattoir and before slaughter longer than 1 day. Moreover, 2 weeks of feeding H sheep markedly increased carcass weight. © GSP, India.


Tilahun M.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Kefelegn K.,Haramaya University | Abebe G.,Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program | Goetsch A.L.,Langston University
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

The objective of this experiment was to compare the feed intake, digestibility, growth performance, and slaughter characteristics of local genotypes of small ruminants in the central highlands of Ethiopia with Boer goat (B) and Dorper sheep (D) blood levels of 0 %, 25 %, and 50 %. Male goats (27; 6-9 months of age) and sheep (27; 3-5 months) were housed individually in confinement during 90-day experiments. Grass hay (6 % crude protein and 64 % or 67 % neutral detergent fiber) was consumed ad libitum together with concentrate (46 % noug seed cake, 28 % wheat bran, 24 % sorghum grain, and 2 % salt) supplemented at 2 % of their body weight. Initial body weight was 18.1, 20.8, and 24.9 kg for Local, 25 % B, and 50 % B, respectively, and 14.8, 20.3, and 17.9 kg for Local, 25 % D, and 50 % D, respectively. Total dry matter (DM) intake by goats ranked Local < 25 % B < 50 % B, and hay intake was greatest for 50 % B. Intake of hay and total DM by sheep ranked Local < 50 % D < 25 % D. Average daily gain by goats was greatest for 50 % B and by sheep was least for Local. Empty body weight of goats at slaughter and carcass weights ranked Local < 25 % B < 50 % B. Body and carcass weights of sheep were lowest for Local. In addition to the difference between 25 % B and Local goats, these results clearly show potential for greater meat yield with the 50 % than 25 % level of B. The findings also depict considerable opportunity to increase meat production by crossbreeding with D, although greater benefit was not realized with 50 % than 25 % D. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Abebe G.,Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program | Kannan G.,Fort Valley State University | Goetsch A.L.,Langston University
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Yearling goats (G) and sheep (S) from highland (H) and lowland (L) areas of Ethiopia were used to determine effects of species and origin and lengths of rest and feeding on harvest measures, particularly carcass surface lightness. The H goat used was Arsi-Bale, and the L goat was Somali. The fat-tail indigenous H sheep is thought to be an Arsi-Bale genotype, and the fat-rump indigenous L sheep genotype was the Black Head Ogaden. There were two experiments (each a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial), one with rest for 0, 1, and 2 days before slaughter (R0, R1, and R2, respectively) and the second with feeding 0, 2, and 4 weeks (0 week= 2 days rest; 0F, 2F, and 4F, respectively). There were 10 animals per treatment. In the rest experiment, the instrumental color measure L* (indicating lightness) for the hind leg surface 3 day post-slaughter was lower (P<0.05) for H than for L (34.8, 36.3, 37.4, and 38.9 for G-H, G-L, S-H, and SL, respectively). Surface L* on day 3 was increased (P < 0.05) by 1 and 2 days of rest compared with 0 day for goats regardless of origin, but was not affected for sheep (33.2, 36.3, 37.2, 38.5, 37.8, and 38.2 for G-R0, G-R1, G-R2, S-R0, S-R1, and S-R2, respectively). In the feeding experiment, surface L* on day 3 was lower (P < 0.05) for H than for L (36.5, 39.0, 36.2, and 39.8 for G-H, G-L, S-H, and S-L, respectively). Feeding for 4 weeks increased (P<0.05) surface L* on day 3 regardless of species and origin (37.7, 36.8, and 39.2 for F0, F2, and F4, respectively). In summary, goat and sheep carcasses from highland areas of Ethiopia may darken more quickly compared with lowland areas, and 1 or 2 days of rest before slaughter can increase lightness of the surface of goat carcasses. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Wallie M.,East Gojjam Zone Agriculture and Rural Development Office | Wallie M.,Haramaya University | Mekasha Y.,East Gojjam Zone Agriculture and Rural Development Office | Urge M.,East Gojjam Zone Agriculture and Rural Development Office | And 2 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2012

Khat (Catha edulis) is a lucrative cash crop in many African countries and other areas of the world. Leftover khat can be used as a feedstuff for ruminants, although seasonal production limits the extent of utilization. Practical methods of feed conservation to preserve nutritional value would be beneficial. Thus, a study was conducted to investigate effects of feeding different forms of leftover khat on intake, digestion, and growth performance of a tropically adapted indigenous goat genotype of eastern Ethiopia. Twenty-four (six per treatment) individually housed Hararghe Highland yearling male goats with an initial body weight of 18. ±. 0.4. kg were used in an on-station experiment, and 32 similar yearlings with an initial body weight of 19. ±. 0.4. kg were employed under on-farm conditions. The on-farm experiment occurred at two villages, with four farmer groups (two farmers per group co-managing animals) per village. Four animals in each farmer group were subjected to each of the four different treatments. Experiments were 90 days in length, with inclusion of a subsequent 10-day period on-station to determine digestibility. Khat in fresh, dry, and silage forms was fed at 1.5% body weight (dry matter; DM), whereas control animals did not receive khat. Animals on-station consumed grass hay ad libitum and those on-farm grazed/browsed surrounding areas. Grass hay DM intake on-station was greater (P<. 0.05) without than with khat (528, 358, 387, and 368. g/day; SE = 20.3), although total DM intake was increased by feeding khat regardless of form (528, 649, 622, and 639. g/day for control, fresh, dry, and silage, respectively; SE = 22.9). Digestibility of organic matter was increased (P<. 0.05) by feeding each form of khat (62.3%, 75.7%, 75.2%, and 72.4% for control, fresh, dry, and silage, respectively; SE = 1.63). Nitrogen balance was increased by fresh and ensiled khat (P<. 0.05) (-0.54, 2.07, 0.80, and 0.86. g/day for control, fresh, dry, and silage, respectively). Average daily gain (ADG) was increased by khat regardless of form on-station (13, 49, 33, and 39. g; SE = 4.6), and on-farm ADG was less for control than for fresh and dry forms (P<. 0.05) (32, 56, 47, and 42. g for control, fresh, dry, and silage, respectively SE. =. 2.0). The ratio of ADG:DM intake on-station was lower for control than for fresh (P<. 0.05) and silage (P<. 0.05) (26, 76, 54, and 61. g/kg for control, fresh, dry, and silage, respectively; SE. =. 7.6). In conclusion, feeding leftover khat to Highland goats consuming low to moderate quality forage-based diets can increase growth performance. Khat can be preserved for use as a feedstuff throughout the year by drying or ensiling without marked effect on performance. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

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