Edmiston Jr. C.E.,Medical College of Wisconsin |
Krepel C.J.,Medical College of Wisconsin |
Marks R.M.,Medical College of Wisconsin |
Rossi P.J.,Medical College of Wisconsin |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013
Sutures under selective host/environmental factors can potentiate postoperative surgical site infection (SSI). The present investigation characterized microbial recovery and biofilm formation from explanted absorbable (AB) and nonabsorbable (NAB) sutures from infected and noninfected sites. AB and NAB sutures were harvested from noninfected (70.9%) and infected (29.1%) sites in 158 patients. At explantation, devices were sonicated and processed for qualitative/quantitative bacteriology; selective sutures were processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bacteria were recovered from 85 (53.8%) explanted sites; 39 sites were noninfected, and 46 were infected. Suture recovery ranged from 11.1 to 574.6 days postinsertion. A significant difference in mean microbial recovery between noninfected (1.2 isolates) and infected (2.7 isolates) devices (P<0.05) was noted. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia spp. were recovered from infected devices, while commensal skin flora was recovered from noninfected devices. No significant difference in quantitative microbial recovery between infected monofilament and multifilament sutures was noted. Biofilm was present in 100% and 66.6% of infected and noninfected devices, respectively (P<0.042). We conclude that both monofilament and braided sutures provide a hospitable surface for microbial adherence: (i) a significant difference in microbial recovery from infected and noninfected sutures was noted, (ii) infected sutures harbored a mixed flora, including multidrug-resistant health care-associated pathogens, and (iii) a significant difference in the presence or absence of a biofilm in infected versus noninfected explanted devices was noted. Further studies to document the benefit of focused risk reduction strategies to minimize suture contamination and biofilm formation postimplantation are warranted. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.
Toedter G.,Centocor |
Li K.,Centocor |
Marano C.,Centocor |
Ma K.,Centocor |
And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2011
Objectives: Infliximab has been shown to induce clinical response and remission in ulcerative colitis (UC). To characterize the biological response of patients to infliximab, we analyzed the mRNA expression patterns of mucosal colonic biopsies taken from UC patients enrolled in the Active Ulcerative Colitis Trial 1 (ACT1) study. Methods: Biopsies were obtained from 48 UC patients before treatment with 5 or 10 mg/kg infliximab, and at 8 and 30 weeks after treatment (n113 biopsies). Global gene expression profiling was performed using Affimetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Expression profiling results for selected genes were confirmed using qPCR. Results: Infliximab had a significant effect on mRNA expression in treatment responders, with both infliximab dose and duration of treatment having an effect. Genes affected are primarily involved with inflammatory response, cell-mediated immune responses, and cell-to-cell signaling. Unlike responders, non-responders do not effectively modulate T H1, T H2, and T H17 pathways. Gene expression can differentiate placebo and infliximab responders. Conclusions: Analysis of mRNA expression in mucosal biopsies following infliximab treatment provided insight into the response to therapy and molecular mechanisms of non-response. © 2011 by the American College of Gastroenterology.