Durban, South Africa
Durban, South Africa

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Leck H.,Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment | Roberts D.,EThekwini Municipality
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2015

Municipal or local government climate governance has attracted much research attention with a proliferation of literature investigating institutional enablers and barriers to climate action. This paper addresses a gap in this literature through considering critically the role of informal/shadow systems and spaces; the significant inner social workings that constitute what we call the 'invisible aspects' of municipal institutions for learning and decision-making processes. Insights are based on a critical and open reflection of the city of Durban's experience in developing their Municipal Climate Protection Programme (MCPP). We argue that beyond formal institutional requirements or policy, local governments rely considerably on shadow systems and informal spaces of information and knowledge exchange across their operations to introduce and sustain new ideas. This dependence is rarely acknowledged explicitly, however, in research, policy or practice and requires much deeper consideration. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: KBBE.2012.3.4-01 | Award Amount: 3.89M | Year: 2012

The project will develop environmentally appropriate and socio-economically sustainable biotechnological processes for converting biodegradable fractions of identified African and Mediterranean agricultural and industrial waste as well as fractions of municipal and animal solid waste into food, feed, value-added products for nutraceuticals and healthcare, biogas and organic based fertilizer. Integrated processes will combine sugar conversion from mainly amylopectins and starchy materials into proteins (for food and feed) with biogas and fertilizer production done in co-digestion of municipal solid waste and manure. Left over sugars from protein production will be used to produce amino acids and lactic acid by bacterial conversion of biowaste to upgrade the fertilizer and for fruit waste storage and food conservation. The technologies to be developed will rely on simple and locally available equipment and naturally occurring microorganisms. Life cycle analysis and socio-economic studies will be undertaken to ensure local applicability in the target countries. The project will contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by improving the management of biowastes in developing countries and thus reducing their potential adverse impacts on human and animal health, the environment and the economy. With partners from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East, the project also provides an opportunity for EU researchers and third country partners to network and share experiences and best practices. The involvement of small-and medium sized enterprises will contribute to EUs industrial competitiveness by exposing them to new markets and new product opportunities from waste utilization. Research activities will be accompanied by proof of concept at SMEs and demonstrations by local communities and NGOs. Exchange of best proactices and knowledge-sharing among project partners will be emphasised


Roberts D.,EThekwini Municipality | O'Donoghue S.,EThekwini Municipality
Environment and Urbanization | Year: 2013

This paper reflects on the progress made in climate change adaptation in the city of Durban since the launch of the Municipal Climate Protection Programme in 2004. This includes the initial difficulties in getting the attention of key sectors within municipal government, and how this was addressed and also served by the more detailed understanding of the range of adaptation options and their cost-benefits. There is also a better understanding of the potentials and constraints on community-based adaptation and the opposition from some landowners to measures to protect and enhance ecosystem services. The paper ends with lessons learnt that contradict some common assumptions - for instance, what approaches best build support for climate change adaptation within local governments, what measures work and from where lessons can be drawn. It also describes the perhaps unexpected linkages between local action and international influence and highlights the need for international climate change negotiations to recognize the key roles of urban governments in developing locally rooted adaptation and resilience. © 2013 International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).


Smith A.M.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Guastella L.A.,University of Cape Town | Botes Z.A.,Geo Dynamic Systems | Bundy S.C.,Sustainable Development Projects CC | Mather A.A.,EThekwini Municipality
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2014

Coastal erosion on the southeast African coastline shows an apparent 18 year cycle which last peaked in 2006. It is in phase with the longshore sediment transport cycle. Both these cycles appear to be in phase with the Lunar Nodal Cycle (LNC). However, the dominant tidal erosion driver on this coast appears to be the 4.4 year Lunar Perigean Subharmonic (LPS). We suggest that the apparent 18 year coastal erosion and longshore sediment budget cycle is a response to the 18 year Mean Annual Precipitation Cycle. This cycle is 180° out of phase with the apparent coastal erosion- and longshore sediment transport- cycles. The summer rainfall areas, of southeastern Africa show an 18 year MAP cyclicity, which drives river runoff and hence controls sediment input to the coast and nearshore environment. The MAP cycle dominates the coastal sediment budget during the LNC trough and suppresses the LPS coastal erosion cycle during this time. This explains why LPS coastal erosion occurs close to the LNC peak. Thus although the LPS cycle dominates the coastline, it is masked during the wet portion of the 18 year MAP cycle. It seems very likely that the LNC drives the MAP cycle in some way but this process is not known. Nevertheless, these relationships can be used to predict, in a general way, both cyclic coastal erosion and the longshore sediment volume fluctuation. This can be translated into a vital coastal planning tool which has the potential to forecast cyclic coastal erosion and hence significantly reduce the sea-defense expenditure bill. Based on this, severe cyclic coastal erosion is anticipated in 2023 and 2024. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Mather A.A.,Ethekwini Municipality | Mather A.A.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Stretch D.D.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
Water (Switzerland) | Year: 2012

Recent coastal storms in southern Africa have highlighted the need for more proactive management of the coastline. Within the southern and eastern African region the availability of coastal information is poor. The greatest gap in information is the likely effects of a combination of severe sea storms and future sea level rise (SLR) on the shoreline. This lack of information creates a barrier to informed decision making. This research outlines a practical localized approach to this problem, which can be applied as a first order assessment within the region. In so doing it provides a cost effective and simple decision support tool for the built environment and disaster professionals in development and disaster assessments. In a South African context the newly promulgated Integrated Coastal Management Act requires that all proposed coastal developments take into consideration future SLR, however such information currently does not exist, despite it being vital for informed planning in the coastal zone. This practical approach has been applied to the coastline of Durban, South Africa as a case study. The outputs are presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) based freeware viewer tool enabling ease of access to both professionals and laypersons. This demonstrates that a simple approach can provide valuable information about the current and future risk of flooding and coastal erosion under climate change to buildings, infrastructure as well as natural features along the coast. © 2012 by the authors.


Chunderduri J.,EThekwini Municipality
Water Policy | Year: 2014

Regulation 17 from the Water Services Act 108 (1997) is currently being implemented for the classification of wastewater treatment facilities and process controllers in South Africa. Green Drop Assessments (an incentivebased programme for wastewater treatment works) place a large focus on Regulation 17 compliance, which replaces Regulation 2834. Over the years, a lack of enforcement of Regulation 2834 has resulted in the incorrect appointment of staff. Many municipalities are therefore struggling to meet the Regulation, which requires appointment of the correct skill level staff to corresponding treatment facilities. The purpose of this paper is to identify the common problems experienced by municipalities, more specifically by the eThekwini Metro Municipality, and to identify possible solutions for closing the gaps. The four key problem areas identified were: imbalanced staff allocation, lack of education amongst staff, lack of experience amongst staff and the need for grandparenting assessments. The solution began with the correct classification of plants and staff, and included education drives and training programmes in addition to staff reallocation methods. These initiatives form part of both a short-term gap-closing strategy and a broader long-term sustainable plan for compliance with Regulation 17, enhanced process control at a plant level and ultimately the acquisition of Greens Drops, as part of the Green Drop Assessments. © 2014 IWA Publishing.


Roberts D.,eThekwini Municipality
Environment and Urbanization | Year: 2010

This paper describes the institutional and resource challenges and opportunities in getting different sectors in eThekwini Municipality (the local government responsible for planning and managing the city of Durban) to recognize and respond to their role in climate change adaptation. The Headline Climate Change Adaptation Strategy launched by the municipality in 2006 did not catalyze the development of sectoral plans or significantly influence the Integrated Development Plan, the key document through which the municipal government sets and implements development priorities. Possible causal factors for this include limited human and financial resources and more immediate and urgent development needs. To address the situation, the municipality's Environmental Planning and Climate Protection Department encouraged and supported three pilot sectors to develop their own municipal adaptation plans. This more sectoral approach encouraged greater interaction among the sectors and provided each with a clearer understanding of their needs and roles from an adaptation perspective. It also highlighted how climate change adaptation could be used as a tool to address development priorities. This work will be extended through research into the cost-benefits of Durban being an "early adapter". Work has also begun on community-based adaptation (including support for reforestation projects that provide "green jobs") and on responses to slow onset disasters, food security and water constraints. © 2010 International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).


Rodda N.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Salukazana L.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Jackson S.A.F.,EThekwini Municipality | Smith M.T.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth | Year: 2011

Disposal of greywater presents a problem in areas served with on-site sanitation or in areas with poor service provision. Such areas often also face challenges with respect to food security. Use of greywater for irrigation of food crops represents a possible beneficial use of greywater which can contribute to household food supply and to informal income generation. In this study, an above-ground crop (Swiss chard, Betavulgaris var. cicla) and a below-ground crop (carrot, Daucus carota) were irrigated in pots with mixed greywater sourced from households in an informal settlement. A simple form of sub-surface irrigation was used. Plant growth, crop yield, and levels of macro- and micronutrients in crops and soil were monitored through six growth cycles. Equivalent treatments, irrigated with either tap water or a hydroponic nutrient solution, were conducted for comparison. The same soil was used throughout to allow accumulation of greywater-derived substances in soil to be detected. The results indicated that: (i) irrigation with greywater increased plant growth and yield relative to crops irrigated with tap water only, although crops irrigated with hydroponic nutrient solution yielded the highest growth and yield; (ii) irrigation with greywater improved plant nutrient content relative to crops irrigated with tap water; (iii) soil irrigated with greywater showed increased electrical conductivity and increased concentrations of metals over time, coupled with an increase in sodium and metal concentrations in crops. Thus, provided precautions are taken with regard to salt and metal accumulation, greywater offers a potential source of water for household crop irrigation which additionally shows some fertiliser properties. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Diederichs N.,FutureWorks Sustainability Consulting | Roberts D.,eThekwini Municipality
Climate and Development | Year: 2015

The implementation of ‘event greening’ initiatives that address the social, ecological, climate and legacy impacts of ‘mega-events’ is now accepted global practice. Since 2006, measuring, reporting and offsetting climate impacts have become central elements of such greening programmes. Without a standardized approach, however, host city governments and local environmental champions play a key role in determining the scope and scale of climate protection interventions, making comparisons between mega-events and host cities difficult. Recently, the city of Durban in South Africa was responsible for developing and implementing greening programmes for two mega-events: the Durban 2010 FIFA™ World Cup and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change COP17/CMP7 in 2011. These experiences have highlighted the high cost of mitigating the climate impacts of mega-events, but also underscored the significant opportunities such events offer to promote investments in resource-efficient local infrastructure and to establish local climate protection projects that deliver long-term social and ecological co-benefits. The analysis of the ecological footprint of COP17/CMP7 also demonstrated that while climate protection has received substantial attention in mega-event greening, a broader set of global environmental change priorities need to shape the focus of future greening efforts. © 2015 Taylor & Francis


Couth R.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Trois C.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Parkin J.,EThekwini Municipality | Strachan L.J.,GreenEng Pty Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

The eThekwini Municipality (Durban, South Africa) landfill gas Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project was the first to be registered and verified in Africa. The idea for the project was developed in 2002, yet it was not until the end of 2006 that the smaller Component One (1 MW) was registered, while the larger Component Two (9 MW) followed only in March 2009. Valuable lessons were learnt from Component One, and these were applied to Component Two. The paper describes the Durban CDM process, the lessons learnt, and assesses the viability of landfill gas to electricity CDM projects in Africa. It concludes that small to medium sized landfill gas to electricity CDM projects are not viable in Africa unless there is a renewable energy feed-in-tariff, or unless the gas is simply flared rather than being utilised for power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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