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Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France

Scheepens A.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Bisson J.-F.,ETAP Ethologie Appliquee | Skinner M.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2014

The increasing prevalence and social burden of subclinical anxiety in the western world represents a significant psychosocial and financial cost. Consumers are favouring a more natural and nonpharmacological approach for alleviating the effects of everyday stress and anxiety. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor is the primary mediator of central inhibitory neurotransmission, and GABA-receptor agonists are well known to convey anxiolytic effects. Using an in vitro screening approach to identify naturally occurring phytochemical GABA agonists, we discovered the plant secondary metabolite p-coumaric acid to have significant GABAergic activity, an effect that could be blocked by co-administration of the specific GABA-receptor antagonist, picrotoxin. Oral administration of p-coumaric acid to rodents induced a significant anxiolytic effect in vivo as measured using the elevated plus paradigm, in line with the effects of oral diazepam. Given that p-coumaric acid is reasonably well absorbed following oral consumption in man and is relatively nontoxic, it may be suitable for the formulation of a safe and effective anxiolytic functional food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Daubie S.,University of Lorraine | Bisson J.-F.,ETAP Ethologie Appliquee | Lalonde R.,University of Montreal | Schroeder H.,University of Lorraine | Rychen G.,University of Lorraine
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2011

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants. Because of their high lipophilicity and persistence, PBDEs bioaccumulate in all abiotic and biological matrices. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term neurobehavioral and physiological effects of exposure to environmental doses of PBDE-99 in adult rats. Rats received a daily administration of PBDE-99 for 90 days by oral gavage at 0.15, 1.5 and 15μg/kg, doses which are relevant of human exposure. Before and after the 90 days of exposure, behavioral tests including the open-field and the elevated plus-maze tests for locomotor activity and anxiety, and the Morris water maze for spatial learning were conducted. Physiological measures such as body weight, food and water consumption, organs weight, hepatic enzymes levels and PBDE-99 concentration in adipose tissue were also evaluated at the end of exposure. There was no effect on body weight, food and water consumption, organs weight, hepatic enzymes levels despite rising PBDE-99 concentration in adipose tissue with the doses tested. Moreover, there was no effect on locomotor activity and exploration, and spatial learning. Deleterious effects of PBDE-99 at high doses have often been highlighted in many studies after an acute dose whereas exposure during 90 days at realistic doses would have no significant effect in adult rats. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Messaoudi M.,ETAP Ethologie Appliquee | Lalonde R.,University of Montreal | Violle N.,ETAP Ethologie Appliquee | Javelot H.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

In a previous clinical study, a probiotic formulation (PF) consisting of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 (PF) decreased stress-induced gastrointestinal discomfort. Emerging evidence of a role for gut microbiota on central nervous system functions therefore suggests that oral intake of probiotics may have beneficial consequences on mood and psychological distress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anxiolytic-like activity of PF in rats, and its possible effects on anxiety, depression, stress and coping strategies in healthy human volunteers. In the preclinical study, rats were daily administered PF for 2 weeks and subsequently tested in the conditioned defensive burying test, a screening model for anti-anxiety agents. In the clinical trial, volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised parallel group study with PF administered for 30d and assessed with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-90), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Perceived Stress Scale, the Coping Checklist (CCL) and 24h urinary free cortisol (UFC). Daily subchronic administration of PF significantly reduced anxiety-like behaviour in rats (P<·05) and alleviated psychological distress in volunteers, as measured particularly by the HSCL-90 scale (global severity index, P<·05; somatisation, P<·05; depression, P<·05; and anger-hostility, P<·05), the HADS (HADS global score, P<·05; and HADS-anxiety, P<·06), and by the CCL (problem solving, P<·05) and the UFC level (P<·05). L. helveticus R0052 and B. longum R0175 taken in combination display anxiolytic-like activity in rats and beneficial psychological effects in healthy human volunteers. © The Authors 2010.

Lang G.,ETAP Ethologie Appliquee | Dernoncourt V.,ETAP Ethologie Appliquee | Bisson J.-F.,ETAP Ethologie Appliquee
Muscle and Nerve | Year: 2015

Introduction: Clenbuterol has been used to alleviate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and elicit an anabolic response in muscles. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of muscle mass variation on physical capacities in rats. Methods: The left hindlimbs of Wistar rats were immobilized for 20 days in plantarflexion with a splint and then remobilized for 16 days. The effect of a non-myotoxic dose of clenbuterol during the immobilization period was evaluated. Physical capacities were coordination, free locomotion, grip strength, and bilateral deficit. Results: Immobilization induced a loss of muscle mass, coordination, and strength without any effect on free locomotion. The positive anabolic effect of clenbuterol did not prevent a loss of physical capacities resulting from immobilization. Conclusions: Muscle mass correlated strongly with coordination and isometric strength in untreated rats. Anabolic effect, fiber phenotype modification, and perturbation in neuromuscular communication with clenbuterol improved muscle mass, but it altered physical capacities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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