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Mazieres S.,Aix - Marseille University | Temory S.A.,Sanguine | Vasseur H.,Etablissement Francais du Sang Auvergne Loire | Gallian P.,Aix - Marseille University | And 2 more authors.
Transfusion Medicine | Year: 2013

Summary: Background and Objectives: Blood incompatibility arises from individual and ethnic differences in red blood cell (RBC) antigen profiles. This underlines the importance of documenting RBC antigen variability in various ethnic groups. Central Asia is an area with a long and complex migratory history. The purpose of this article is to describe key antigen frequencies of Afghan ethnic groups in the Hindu-Kush region of Afghanistan as a basis for improving blood transfusion practices in that area. Materials and Methods: The key ABO, Rh and Kell antigens were investigated in five Afghan populations. In order to depict accurately the blood group gene diversity in the area, DNA from eight additional Pakistani populations were included, and the entire sample set screened using two multiplex polymerase chain reactions sensitive for 17 alleles in 10 blood group genetic systems (MNS, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, Cartwright, Dombrock, Indian, Colton, Diego and Landsteiner-Wiener). Results: Phenotype and allele frequencies fell within the ranges observed in Western European and East Asian populations. Occurrence of DI* 01, IN* 01, LW* 07 and FY* 02N.01 and prevalence of ABO* B were consistent with migratory history as well as with putative environmental adaptation in the subtropical environment Hindu-Kush region. Conclusion: These findings expand the current knowledge about key antigen frequencies. Regarding occurrence of viral markers, further blood transfusion in the region requires rigorous typing. © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

Alfonso E.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Xie X.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Augusto V.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Garraud O.,Etablissement Francais du Sang Auvergne Loire | Garraud O.,Jean Monnet University
Health Care Management Science | Year: 2012

This paper addresses the modeling and simulation of blood collection systems in France for both fixed site and mobile blood collection with walk in whole blood donors and scheduled plasma and platelet donors. Petri net models are first proposed to precisely describe different blood collection processes, donor behaviors, their material/human resource requirements and relevant regulations. Petri net models are then enriched with quantitative modeling of donor arrivals, donor behaviors, activity times and resource capacity. Relevant performance indicators are defined. The resulting simulation models can be straightforwardly implemented with any simulation language. Numerical experiments are performed to show how the simulation models can be used to select, for different walk in donor arrival patterns, appropriate human resource planning and donor appointment strategies. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Cognasse F.,Etablissement Francais du Sang Auvergne Loire | Cognasse F.,Jean Monnet University | Nguyen K.A.,Jean Monnet University | Damien P.,Jean Monnet University | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2015

Platelets are non-nucleated cells that play central roles in the processes of hemostasis, innate immunity, and inflammation; however, several reports show that these distinct functions are more closely linked than initially thought. Platelets express numerous receptors and contain hundreds of secretory products. These receptors and secretory products are instrumental to the platelet functional responses. The capacity of platelets to secrete copious amounts of cytokines, chemokines, and related molecules appears intimately related to the role of the platelet in inflammation. Platelets exhibit non-self-infectious danger detection molecules on their surfaces, including those belonging to the "toll-like receptor" family, as well as pathogen sensors of other natures (Ig- or complement receptors, etc.). These receptors permit platelets to both bind infectious agents and deliver differential signals leading to the secretion of cytokines/chemokines, under the control of specific intracellular regulatory pathways. In contrast, dysfunctional receptors or dysregulation of the intracellular pathway may increase the susceptibility to pathological inflammation. Physiological vs. pathological inflammation is tightly controlled by the sensors of danger expressed in resting, as well as in activated, platelets. These sensors, referred to as pathogen recognition receptors, primarily sense danger signals termed pathogen associated molecular patterns. As platelets are found in inflamed tissues and are involved in auto-immune disorders, it is possible that they can also be stimulated by internal pathogens. In such cases, platelets can also sense danger signals using damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Some of the most significant DAMP family members are the alarmins, to which the Siglec family of molecules belongs. This review examines the role of platelets in anti-infection immunity via their TLRs and Siglec receptors. © 2015 Cognasse, Nguyen, Damien, McNicol, Pozzetto, Hamzeh-Cognasse and Garraud.

Burnouf T.,Taipei Medical University | Chou M.-L.,Taipei Medical University | Goubran H.,University of Saskatchewan | Cognasse F.,Etablissement Francais du Sang Auvergne Loire | And 4 more authors.
Transfusion and Apheresis Science | Year: 2015

Blood cells and tissues generate heterogeneous populations of cell-derived vesicles, ranging from approximately 50 nm to 1 μm in diameter. Under normal physiological conditions and as an essential part of an energy-dependent natural process, microparticles (MPs) are continuously shed into the circulation from membranes of all viable cells such as megakaryocytes, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells and endothelial cells. MP shedding can also be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes and activation of coagulation or complement systems, or even by shear stress in the circulation. Structurally, MPs have a bilayered phospholipid structure exposing coagulant-active phosphatidylserine and expressing various membrane receptors, and they serve as cell-to-cell shuttles for bioactive molecules such as lipids, growth factors, microRNAs, and mitochondria. It was established that ex vivo processing of blood into its components, involving centrifugation, processing by various apheresis procedures, leucoreduction, pathogen reduction, and finally storage in different media and different types of blood bags, can impact MP generation and content. This is mostly due to exposure of the collected blood to anticoagulant/storage media and due to shear stresses or activation, contact with artificial surfaces, or exposure to various leucocyte-removal filters and pathogen-reduction treatments. Such artificially generated MPs, which are added to the original pool of MPs collected from the donor, may exhibit specific functional characteristics, as MPs are not an inert element of blood components. Not surprisingly, MPs' roles and functionality are therefore increasingly seen to be fully relevant to the field of transfusion medicine, and as a parameter of blood safety that must be considered in haemovigilance programmes. Continual advancements in assessment methods of MPs and storage lesions are gradually leading to a better understanding of the impacts of blood collection on MP generation, while clinical research should clarify links of MPs with transfusion reactions and certain clinical disorders. Harmonization and consensus in sampling protocols, sample handling and processing, and assessment methods are needed to achieve consensual interpretations. This review focuses on the role of MPs as an essential laboratory tool and as a most effective player in transfusion science and medicine and in health and disease. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Bost V.,Etablissement Francais du Sang Auvergne Loire | Odent-Malaure H.,Etablissement Francais du Sang Auvergne Loire | Chavarin P.,Etablissement Francais du Sang Auvergne Loire | Benamara H.,Etablissement Francais du Sang Auvergne Loire | And 3 more authors.
Vox Sanguinis | Year: 2013

Background and objectives: Our objective was to compare the frequency of adverse events (AEs) due to any of the 4 types of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) prepared and delivered by the French Blood Establishment (EFS) over a 10-year period. Surveillance of AEs and vigilance was performed according to a homogeneous policy. The four types of FFP comprised of one type (methylene blue [MB) that was stopped since then and of another type [amotosalen (AI)] that was recently introduced, along with two conventional products [quarantine (Q) and solvent-detergent (SD)]. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study based on the national AE reporting database and on the regional database system for deliveries. AEs recorded after the delivery of 1 of the 4 types of FFP were pairwise compared, with appropriate statistical corrections. Results: 105 964 FFP units were delivered (38·4% Q, 17·9% SD, 9·7% MB and 34% AI). Statistical comparisons of AEs identified only a difference in AE rates between quarantine and solvent-detergent plasma. Conclusions: FFP was confirmed to be extremely safe in general, especially if one considers 'severe' AEs. All types of FFP were associated with extremely low occurrences of AEs. Q, SD, MB and AI led, respectively, to 7·14, 4·86, 1·05 and 4·16 AEs per 10 000 deliveries. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

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