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Cerro de Pasco, Peru

de Mera A.G.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Vicente Orellana J.A.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Mendez E.,Instituto Argentino Of Investigaciones Of Las Zonas Aridas | Perea E.L.,Estudios Fitogeograficos del Peru | de la Cruz J.C.,National Major San Marcos University
Phytocoenologia | Year: 2014

The Andean Cordillera is the second highest mountain range in the world after the Himalayas and therefore, one of the places where the cryogenic manifestations are more prominent. Tropical Andean glaciers usually present an ice-cap form, and various geomorphological forms -rock glaciers, block streams, morainic deposits, cryoplanation surfaces (sometimes mixed with volcanic pumices) with polygon soils, and solifluction terraces -can be distinguished in the surroundings. The study was carried out in the main glacial zones of Peru: Cordillera Blanca, Cordillera Central, Department of Puno (Allincapac and Yuracjasa), Department of Arequipa (Coropuna, Huarancante, Ampato and Imata plains), and Department of Tacna near the Tutupaca volcano. Above 4000 m (oro-and cryorotropical bioclimatic belts) we documented 152 plots using the Braun-Blanquet method, adding 287 relevés from other authors from Peru, and also from Venezuela to southern Argentina and Chile. To interpret the variability, geographical distribution and vertical continuum of the associations, the concepts of basal community (BC), derived community (DC), altitudinal form and geographic race were used. Field and bibliographic tables were synthesized, and arranged using two dendrograms as a result of applying the Sørensen index to compare glacial vegetation between Peru and other regions of South America. Rock glaciers support a rupicolous vegetation dominated by Valeriana nivalis, and Saxifraga magellanica on the more humid rocks. Block streams contain specific plant communities with Xenophyllum species (X. ciliolatum, X. dactylophyllum, X. decorum, X. digitatum and X. poposum), but Chaetanthera is also very important in these biotopes across the Andes. Cryoplanation surfaces, with more stable and deep soils, present a greater diversity of plants, such as Anthochloa lepidula, Dielsiochloa floribunda, Lachemilla frigida, Mniodes coarctata, Nototriche obcuneata, N. pedicularifolia or N. turritella. On solifluction terraces and flood surfaces, communities with Festuca rigescens and Trichophorum rigidum can be distinguished respectively. Deep clayey soils, support small pasturages of Deyeuxia minima and Aciachne pulvinata sometimes grazed, while the cushion vegetation caused by snowbreak streams is represented by Deyeuxia ovata and Werneria aretioides. From a syntaxonomical point of view, 32 Peruvian plant communities were recognized. Rock communities are the Senecio bolivarianus community-mono-specific plant community on humid rocks distributed form Huancayo to Cusco, the Asplenio triphylli-Melpomenetum moniliformis ass. novaa rupiculous association installed on granitic rocks of the Cordillera Blanca, the Senecio algens community associated with the basal part of the rocks of the humid puna, and the Senecioni culcitioidis-Valerianetum nivalisa characteristic rock community usually present on andesites and basalts from Lima to Cordillera El Barroso (Tacna) [this association includes the subassociation saxifragetosum magellanicae, found on semi-permanent humid rocks, the geographic race with Draba cryptantha (Cordillera Central), the geographic race with Draba brackenridgei (near Cotahuasi Canyon, Arequipa), the geographic race with Draba cuzcoensis (near Colca Canyon, Arequipa), and the thermic altitudinal form with Woodsia montevidensis (Callalli, Arequipa)]. The Xenophyllo-Englerocharion peruvianae alliance is represented by the following communities: Xenophyllo ciliolati-Plettkeetum cryptanthae-a humid puna association present on block streams and morainic deposits with superficial stones from the Cordillera Blanca to Allincapac (Puno) [this association includes an altitudinal form with Anticona glareophila, from the limits of the vegetation of the Cordillera Central, a variant of semi-fixed blocks with Xenophyllum digitatum, a variant of mobile blocks with Xenophyllum ciliolatum, a derived community (DC) with Chaetanthera cochlearifolia from Central Peru, found on clayey places that will evolve to the polygon soils colonized by the Stangeo rhizanthae-Weberbaueretum rosulantis association, and a DC with Valeriana globularis and Anthochloa lepidula on the same environments from southern Peru], and the Poa gymnantha-Cerastium peruvianum community, documented on volcanic conglomerates from Callalli (Arequipa). Nototricho obcuneatae-Xenophylletum poposi-installed on semi-fixed blocks of the altiplano of Peru and Bolivia in drysubhumid climate (its variability presents the sub-associations valerianetosum nivalis as a rupiculous aspect, and mniodetosum coarctatae on lightly sloping polygon soils), Nototricho-Mniodetum coarctatae ass. nova-cryorotropical vegetation on flat polygon soils enriched with the volcanic pumices of the altiplano, and the Belloo piptolepis-Dissanthelietum calycini-that indicates wetter soils without volcanic pumices in the altiplano-belong to the Nototrichion obcuneatae alliance. The Deyeuxion minimae alliance indicates deeper and more humid soils, where we can differentiate five associations: Nototricho pinnatae-Lachemilletum frigidae-present on the rock cornices and polygon soils coming from intrusive geologic materials of the Cordillera Blanca, Pycnophyllo mollis-Festucetum rigescentis-very typical on solifluction terraces of the humid puna of Peru and Bolivia, Deyeuxio minimae-Trichophoretum rigidae-on flooded surfaces of the humid Peruvian Andes, Azorello diapensioidis-Deyeuxietum minimae-on humid, deep and clayey cryogenic soils, sometimes with very little superficial stones [this association includes an altitudinal form with Deyeuxia rigida, an altitudinal form with Pycnophyllum molle, a variant on incipient solifluction terraces with Dissanthelium macusaniense, and another variant on deep and humid soils with Werneria nubigena], and Gnaphalio badii-Aciachnetum pulvinatae grazed vegetation in the orotropical belt. Finally, Deyeuxio ovatae-Wernerietum aretioidis ass. nova is a cushion association belonging to the Plantagini-Distichietea class occurring between 4800 and 5000 m a.s.l. To study the relationships between plant communities and some selected climatic parameters (T, M, m, It, P, Pm and Hm-see abbreviations of the Table 6), we have made a biplot from a Principal Component Analyses for each plant community group (rock communities, Xenophyllo-Englerocharion, Nototrichion obcuneatae, and Deyeuxion minimae and other syntaxa. Plant communities placed at high altitude or in dry puna (Oruro-Arequipeña biogeographic province) are linked with the smaller values of the lowest mean temperature of the coldest month (m), while those placed in the humid puna (Ancashino-Paceña biogeographic province) are linked with the highest values of the highest mean temperature of the coldest month (M). Finally, the syntaxa Empetro rubrum-Balecetea gummiferae, Hamadryo kingii-Oreopolion glacialis, Leucherio hahnii-Nassauvietum juniperinae and Empetro rubrum-Oreopoletum glacialis, described earlier from Southern Patagonia, are typified. © 2014 Gebrüder Borntraeger, 70176 Stuttgart, Germany. Source


Galan de Mera A.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Vicente Orellana J.A.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Eliana L.P.,Estudios Fitogeograficos del Peru | Campos de la Cruz J.,National Major San Marcos University | And 2 more authors.
Caldasia | Year: 2012

Using climatic values of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, as well as climate indices of thermicity and aridity, in this work we try to establish a relationship between cactus communities and their distribution in the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes. Using the Sørensen index on a matrix with the floristic composition of plant communities, we obtained a dendrogram that explains their grouping according to biogeographic provinces and bioclimatic belts. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on selected localities, we can infer how they are grouped according to the altitudinal gradient and climatic values and indices. Cactus populations located north of the 8° parallel south are the most influenced by the humidity provided by El Niño stream; those populations south of the 8° parallel south, on the western slopes of the Andes, depend on the low summer humidity (HE), although it can also be evident the winter humidity (HI) due to rainfalls of isolated depressions that emerge from sub-Antarctic storms between July and August. However, the crop terraces of ancestral cultures reflect a more humid ancient climate. In the coast and basal areas of the Andes, next to the abiotic desert, the aridity is very high, although communities with Neoraimondia arequipensis are still present. Communities located north of the 8° parallel south belong to the Pacific biogeographic province, those of the central Peru belong to the Ancash-La Paz province, those of the Arequipa, Moquegua and Tacna departments to the Oruro-Arequipa province, and finally those communities of the Pacific Desert belong to the Lima-Arica province. Source


de Mera A.G.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Perea E.L.,Estudios Fitogeograficos del Peru | Orellana J.A.V.,University of San Pablo - CEU
Annales Botanici Fennici | Year: 2012

Taraxacum penyalarense A. Galán, E. Linares & Vicente Orell. is described and illustrated as a new species. It was found in the Iberian Central Mountains, on the Peñalara mountain, Madrid, Spain. It resembles some species of sect. Naevosa, but differs in its rough leaves, horned exterior phyllaries with a scarious border, and pale green achenes. © Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board 2012. Source


de Mera A.G.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Perea E.L.,Estudios Fitogeograficos del Peru | de la Cruz J.C.,National Major San Marcos University | Orellana J.A.V.,University of San Pablo - CEU
Revista de Biologia Tropical | Year: 2011

The vegetation of the sandy hills ("lomas") constitutes the main originality of the Peruvian and Chilean desert with a high number of endemics that shapes the vicarious associations. In this work, a phytosociological view of sandy environments of the Peruvian coastal desert is presented. According to the Braun-Blanquet method, we have made up 32 phytosociological inventories and added 138 ones from others authors. In each inventory, we have analyzed its floristic composition and ecological parameters, as altitude, soil and geomorphology. All releves were synthesized in a table to deduce the different associations, higher phytosociological units, and the distribution of its flora along the Peruvian coast and the Andean Cordillera. Using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, the diversity of this flora is discussed making a comparison with historical data about the use of the territory with livestock during pre-Inca and Inca cultures, and Spanish invasion. As a result, two associations from Southern Peru -Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae and Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri-, two alliances -Nolanion humifusae from central Peru, and Nolanion spathulatae from the Southern Peru- and a new order -Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis- are described. In Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae, Dictyophragnus englerianus, Leptoglossis lomana, Nolana scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua velutina and Tetragonia vestita are the main characteristics, while in Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri association N. scaposa and P. velutina are replaced by Palaua camanensis and P. weberbaueri. Nolanion humifusae alliance integrates species as Geranium limae, Hymenocallis amancaes, Nolana humifusa, N. latipes, Palaua rhombifolia or Villanova oppositifolia. Likewise, Cistanthe weberbaueri, Cryptantha parviflora, Hoffmannseggia miranda, Lupinus mollendoensis, Nolana confinis, N. pallidula, N. scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua camanensis, P. velutina, P. weberbaueri, Tetragonia vestita and Weberbauerella brongniartioides are the characteristic species of Nolanion spathulatae alliance. The Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis order presents characteristic plants don't linked with eutrophic soils, as Calandrinia alba, Cryptantha limensis, Dyschoriste repens, Monnina macrostachya, Oxalis lomana, Palaua malvifolia, Pectocarya lateriflora, Plantago limensis or Tetragonia crystallina, with a distribution that claps the geographical area of the new alliances. On the other hand, the vegetation of the desert ravines is discussed in the context of the coastal river plant communities and its disturbance by the dunes. After the application of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index on the synthetic table columns, we can deduce that an increase in Andean and European ruderal species is linked to an intensive livestock activity. The transhumance between the Andes and the coast from pre-Inca times until now, produces the plant dispersion of high Andean plants toward the coast; the Spanish colonization was the origin of the presence of European plants in the "lomas" vegetation of Peru. Source


Galan De Mera A.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Linares Perea E.,Estudios Fitogeograficos del Peru | Campos De La Cruz J.,National Major San Marcos University | Vicente Orellana J.A.,University of San Pablo - CEU
Phytocoenologia | Year: 2012

In the context of the landscape and history of the southern Peruvian Andean territory, a phytosociological approach to the vegetation linked to human activity is presented. To obtain a comprehensive study, we focused the study on different elements of the Andean landscape, including plant communities: crop terraces with Brassica rapa and Medicago hispida communities, irrigation channels with Mimulus glabratus and Polypogon interrupts communities roads with Altemantbera pungens and Lepidium bipinnatifidum communities, overgrazed areas with Bouteloua simplex, Michrochloa indica and Cyperus andinus, farmyards, dumps and wall bases of villages with ruderal communities with Malva parviflora and Urocarpidium peruvianum, and wall fissures with Parietaria debilis and Cheilanthes pruinata communities. The study area is especially the Colca canyon in the Arequipa Department (southern Peru), where traditional agriculture is practiced and where we lifted 144 plots following the BRAUN-BLANQUET methodology, adding 853 plots from other authors. In total, 997 plots and 426 species were considered. To interpret the variability and vertical continuum of the associations, we have used the concepts of basal community (BC), derived community (DC), and altitudinal form were used. Field and bibliographic tables were synthetized, and as a result of column comparisons, we have concluded with a diversity of 41 Andean associations and communities described for areas of human impact distributed in different climatic belts. From a syntaxonomical point of view, 10 new associations are described: Nassello pubiflorae-Stipetum mucronatae -supra- and orotropical communities associated with the crops of southern Peru where the soil has been turned using the Roman plough-, Chlorido virgatae-Pennisetetum villosi -thermo- and mesotropical communities on abandoned fields, wastelands and road margins in the Bolivian Andes-, Mimulo glabrati-Polypogonetum interrupti-streams and irrigation ditch vegetation with running waters-, Monnino ramosae-Boutelouetum simplicis - pioneer annual vegetation on sandy soils of the supratropical belt of southern Peru-, Hypseocharito bilobatae-Boutelouetum simplicis-pioneer annual vegetation on clayey soils of the supra- and low orotropical belts of southern Peru-, Pectocaryo lateriflorae-Boutelouetum simplicis-pioneer annual vegetation on clayey soils of the mesotropical belt of southern Peru-, Evolvulo arizonici-Muhlenbergietumperuvianae-pioneer annual vegetation on clayey soils of the supratropical belt of the eastern cordillera of Bolivia-, Urtico flabellatae-Urocarpidetum peruviani-nitrophilous meso- and supratropical vegetation on disturbed soils of dumps, street margins and wall bases of the houses of the villages of central and southern Peru-, Oxalido petrophilae-Cheilanthetum pruinatae-supratropical association in the fissures of the andesitic rocks and walls of the villages of southern Peru - and Cheilanthetum arequipensis-fissure vegetation of the andesitic rocks of the mesotropical belt of southern Peru. For all these associations, we have commented on their variability with sub-associations, derived communities, basal communities, altitudinal forms and geo-vicarious associations. To connect the vegetation linked to the crops on soils turned by the Roman plough in the supra- and orotropical belt, we have created the new alliance Hordeion mutici (while vegetation on soils turned by the Inca plough -"taclla"- belongs to the Calandrinion ciliatae) and the Calandrinietalia ciliatae order. The vegetation of irrigation ditches in the tropical Andes belongs to the new alliance Mimulion glabrati, and the hygronitrophilous ones to Rumicion cuneifolii and the Polygono hydropiperoidis-Rumicetalia cuneifolii. Pioneer annual vegetation of the Occidental Peruvian Andes belongs to the Monnino pterocarpae-Cyperion andinae, and for the meso- and supratropical rock vegetation we have described the Woodsio montevidensis-Cheilanthion pruinatae. Moreover, all vegetation types of the Colca canyon linked to human activity have been compared with other tropical Andean localities with similar ecological conditions, especially from central Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador, and also with extra-tropical conditions from Chile and Argentina. © 2012 Gebrüder Borntraeger, 70176 Stuttgart, Germany. Source

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