Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory

Tartu, Estonia

Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory

Tartu, Estonia
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Guiot A.L.,CPB Conseils en Pharmacie et Biologie | Mahar K.,Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2013

The assessment of the efficacy of oral vaccination in wildlife is based on detection in the teeth of a biomarker (tetracycline) which is incorporated in the vaccine bait, and the quantification of rabies antibodies.A blocking ELISA was evaluated and compared with the FAVN test and a validated in-house ELISA, using sera from foxes and raccoon dogs collected following oral vaccination campaigns in France and Estonia.Specificity reached 100% in sera from naïve animals. A high concordance (95%) was observed between the BioPro ELISA and the FAVN test, which was similar in sera from red foxes and raccoon dogs. Concordance between the BioPro ELISA and the in-house ELISA reached 96.5% for sera from red foxes.The agreement with tetracycline results was excellent in the fox for both the BioPro ELISA (95.9%) and the FAVN test (91.8%). Concordance was slightly lower in the raccoon dog, with a value of 82.8% for the BioPro ELISA and 78.4% for the FAVN test.Rabies antibodies were detected with the BioPro ELISA in animals vaccinated with different types of vaccines and in highly haemolysed sera.The BioPro ELISA is a valuable test to assess the efficacy of oral vaccination in foxes and raccoon dogs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Institute of Food Safety, National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute of Lithuania, Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, State Food and Veterinary Service and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2016

Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries--Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania--to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005-2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ORV campaigns in these countries resulting in the near eradication of the disease. The various factors that may have influenced the results of vaccination monitoring were assessed using generalized linear models (GLMs) on bait uptake and on herd immunity. As shown in previous studies, juveniles had lower bait uptake level than adults. For the first time, raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were shown to have significantly lower bait uptake proportion compared with red foxes. This result suggests potentially altered ORV effectiveness in this invasive species compared to the red foxes. An extensive phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the North-East European (NEE) rabies phylogroup is endemic in all three Baltic countries. Although successive oral vaccination campaigns have substantially reduced the number of detected rabies cases, sporadic detection of the C lineage (European part of Russian phylogroup) underlines the risk of reintroduction via westward spread from bordering countries. Vaccine induced cases were also reported for the first time in non-target species (Martes martes and Meles meles).


PubMed | Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory, Institute of Food Safety, National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute and National Veterinary Research Institute
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology | Year: 2015

This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time ( = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional ( = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement ( = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs.


Muzniece Z.,Institute of Food Safety | Must K.,Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory
Biologicals | Year: 2012

The surveillance of rabies relies on investigations conducted on dead suspected animals or animals showing clinical signs suggestive of rabies. An immunochromatographic method based on lateral flow principle has been evaluated against a collection of brain samples mainly of European mammals including bats. The performance of this new test has been compared to the conventional gold standard methods: the fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT) and the Rapid Tissue Culture Infection Test (RTCIT). This test enabled the detection of various rabies strains belonging to rabies species 1, 5, 6 and 7 and demonstrated an overall specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of more than 88% when compared to FAT and RTCIT. A total agreement between the Rapid Immunochromatographic Diagnostic Test and conventional technique results have been obtained for European bat samples. © 2012 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization.


Krams I.,Daugavpils University | Cirule D.,Daugavpils University | Krama T.,Daugavpils University | Krama T.,University of Tartu | And 6 more authors.
Annales Zoologici Fennici | Year: 2010

This study aims to investigate whether forest management has an effect on reproduc-tion, haematological parameters and blood parasites of breeding Siberian tits Poecile cinctus. Birds breeding in heavily managed forests had significantly higher heterophil and lower lymphocyte concentrations and a higher heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio than those breeding in moderately managed forests. Although this suggests the increased level of physiological stress in Siberian tits breeding in heavily managed for-ests, reproductive parameters of the birds did not differ between the two habitats. Nest-lings in moderately managed forests had higher total leukocyte and lymphocyte counts than nestlings in heavily managed habitat. The total count of parasites and Leucocy-tozoon majoris was significantly higher near streams, while the count of Plasmodium circumflexum was higher both near streams and lakes. Although blood parasites were detected in the blood of 80% adult birds, this study did not reveal any parasite-related effects on haematological parameters. © Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board 2010.


PubMed | Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory, Estonian University of Life Sciences and Estonian Veterinary and Food Board
Type: | Journal: Transboundary and emerging diseases | Year: 2017

Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, African swine fever (ASF) is regarded as one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. Following the ongoing epidemic in the Transcaucasian countries and the Russian Federation, African swine fever virus was introduced into the Estonian wild boar population in 2014. Epidemiological investigations suggested two different introductions into the southern and the north-eastern part of Estonia. Interestingly, outbreak characteristics varied considerably between the affected regions. While high mortality and mainly virus-positive animals were observed in the southern region, mortality was low in the north-eastern area. In the latter, clinically healthy, antibody-positive animals were found in the hunting bag and detection of virus was rare. Two hypotheses could explain the different behaviour in the north-east: (i) the frequency of antibody detections combined with the low mortality is the tail of an older, so far undetected epidemic wave coming from the east, or (ii) the virus in this region is attenuated and leads to a less severe clinical outcome. To explore the possibility of virus attenuation, a re-isolated ASFV strain from the north-eastern Ida-Viru region was biologically characterized in European wild boar. Oronasal inoculation led to an acute and severe disease course in all animals with typical pathomorphological lesions. However, one animal recovered completely and was subsequently commingled with three sentinels of the same age class to assess disease transmission. By the end of the trial at 96days post-initial inoculation, all animals were completely healthy and neither virus nor viral genomes were detected in the sentinels or the survivor. The survivor, however, showed high antibody levels. In conclusion, the ASFV strain from north-eastern Estonia was still highly virulent but nevertheless, one animal recovered completely. Under the experimental conditions, no transmission occurred from the survivor to susceptible sentinel pigs.


Karssin A.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Karssin A.,Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Velstrom K.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Gomez-Morales M.A.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | And 4 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2016

Trichinella spp. are relevant zoonotic pathogens in Estonia. The aim of this nationwide cross-sectional study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Trichinella spp. In domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa). Serum samples from 374 pigs, originating from 14 farms, and meat juice samples from 470 wild boars were tested for immunoglobulin G antibodies against Trichinella excretory/secretory antigens using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies against Trichinella were not detected in the domestic pigs, indicating effective parasite control strategies in the farms. By contrast, 42.1% of the wild boars tested positive, indicating substantial infection pressure in the sylvatic cycle. Further analysis of a subset of the wild boar samples, using another ELISA and Western blot, yielded a confirmed seroprevalence estimate of 17.4%. A substantial proportion of wild boars in Estonia had evidence of exposure to Trichinella spp. and may have carried infective larvae. Undercooked Estonian wild boar meat is a potential source of Trichinella spp. Infections to humans and other hosts. © 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Raaperi K.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Nurmoja I.,Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Orro T.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Viltrop A.,Estonian University of Life Sciences
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

The objectives of this study were to reassess the herd level and within-herd prevalence of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) infection in Estonian dairy cattle, estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for bulk tank milk (BTM) testing and determine the risk factors related to high prevalence of the infection in herds.To estimate the herd prevalence, BTM samples from each of the 1,205 herds that sell milk to dairy companies were analysed for BHV1 antibodies. One hundred and three herds with known BHV1 infection status were selected to estimate within-herd prevalence and to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of BTM ELISA. In these herds serum samples were collected from cows and youngstock, together with BTM samples. A commercial blocking ELISA test was used to analyse samples for antibodies against BHV1. A questionnaire was completed to collect herd data.The sensitivity and specificity of the BTM ELISA were 76.5% and 97.2%, respectively, and the true herd prevalence of BHV1 was calculated to be 22.0%. The herd prevalence increased significantly with herd size, being 3.4% in the smallest category (less than 20 cows) and 85.7% in herds of size over 400. The mean within-herd prevalence was 37.8% (range 1-100, median 31.5). The mean within-herd prevalence increased with herd size.Data from 59 infected herds was used to determine the risk factors associated with high within-herd prevalence (>50%) of BHV1, using logistic regression analysis. As, in some infected herds, the youngstock were uninfected, risk factors for the presence of BHV1 among youngstock from 6 months until calving were analysed. The results indicate the importance of iatrogenic spread of the virus, since the overall within-herd prevalence was higher in those herds in which a veterinarian was an employee of the farm and an inseminator worked only for the particular farm. The presence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in a herd was associated with a higher prevalence of BHV1. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Kalmus P.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Kramarenko T.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Kramarenko T.,Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Roasto M.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2015

The main aim of the present study was to estimate the occurrence of zoonotic bacteria in raw milk intended for sale directly to consumers in Estonia. In-line milk filters, bulk milk samples and milk samples from selling points were collected from a total of 14 dairy farms and respective retail selling points. The somatic cell counts, total bacterial counts and the presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes were studied from bulk milk samples. Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., L.monoscytogenes and Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were studied in farms in-line milk filters. The total bacterial counts exceeded 100,000cfu/ml in three (21.4%) bulk milk samples and in 10 samples (71.4%) collected at the retail level. STEC genes were detected in 64.3% of the in-line milk filter samples. More than one STEC serogroup-specific gene was detected in four dairy farms. L.monocytogenes was found in 36% of the in-line milk filters. Neither Salmonella spp. nor Campylobacter spp. were found in any samples. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Kalmus P.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Aasmae B.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Karssin A.,Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory | Orro T.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Kask K.,Estonian University of Life Sciences
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica | Year: 2011

Background: The goal of this study was to estimate the distribution of udder pathogens and their antibiotic resistance in Estonia during the years 2007-2009.Methods: The bacteriological findings reported in this study originate from quarter milk samples collected from cows on Estonian dairy farms that had clinical or subclinical mastitis. The samples were submitted by local veterinarians to the Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory during 2007-2009. Milk samples were examined by conventional bacteriology. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with the disc diffusion test. Logistic regression with a random herd effect to control for clustering was used for statistical analysis.Results: During the study period, 3058 clinical mastitis samples from 190 farms and 5146 subclinical mastitis samples from 274 farms were investigated. Positive results were found in 57% of the samples (4680 out of 8204), and the proportion did not differ according to year (p > 0.05). The proportion of bacteriologically negative samples was 22.3% and that of mixed growth was 20.6%. Streptococcus uberis (Str. uberis) was the bacterium isolated most frequently (18.4%) from cases of clinical mastitis, followed by Escherichia coli (E. coli) (15.9%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (Str. agalactiae) (11.9%). The bacteria that caused subclinical mastitis were mainly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (20%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (15.4%). The probability of isolating S. aureus from milk samples was significantly higher on farms that had fewer than 30 cows, when compared with farms that had more than 100 cows (p < 0.005). A significantly higher risk of Str. agalactiae infection was found on farms with more than 600 cows (p = 0.034) compared with smaller farms. The proportion of S. aureus and CNS isolates that were resistant to penicillin was 61.4% and 38.5%, respectively. Among the E. coli isolates, ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline resistance were observed in 24.3%, 15.6% and 13.5%, respectively.Conclusions: This study showed that the main pathogens associated with clinical mastitis were Str. uberis and E. coli. Subclinical mastitis was caused mainly by S. aureus and CNS. The number of S. aureus and Str. agalactiae isolates depended on herd size. Antimicrobial resistance was highly prevalent, especially penicillin resistance in S. aureus and CNS. © 2011 Kalmus et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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