Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture

Saku, Estonia

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture

Saku, Estonia

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Sorensen J.L.,University of Aalborg | Sorensen J.L.,University of Aarhus | Akk E.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture | Thrane U.,Technical University of Denmark | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

Fusarielins constitute a relative unexplored group of secondary metabolites, which have been isolated mainly from unidentified Aspergillus and Fusarium strains. In the present study we show that the ability to produce fusarielins is restricted to a few Fusarium species. Among the 15 analyzed species fusarielins were identified only in extracts from Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium tricinctum. The influence of different carbon sources on fusarielin biosynthesis was examined and the results showed that disaccharides and dextrin in combination with arginine as sole nitrogen source increased fusarielin production. When arginine was replaced with nitrate the fusarielins were produced on a wider selection of carbon sources including all monosaccharides. Production of fusarielins in F. graminearum was also influenced by pH, cultivation time, temperature and fructose concentration with the optimal conditions being: pH. 6, 25°C, 26. days and 60. mg fructose/mL. Wheat spikes were inoculated with F. graminearum to determine whether fusarielins are produced in infected cereals and fusarielin H was detected in all samples ranging from 392 to 1865. ng/g (mean: 989. ng/g) indicating that fusarielins are produced during infection. The study shows that even though fusarielins are produced by a narrow list of Fusarium species, they potentially can be present in infected cereals. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Sepp M.,University of Tartu | Saue T.,University of Tartu | Saue T.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2012

Biology-related indicators do not usually depend on just one meteorological element but on a combination of several weather indicators. One way to establish such integral indicators is to classify the general atmospheric circulation into a small number of circulation types. The aim of present study is to analyse connections between general atmospheric circulation and potato crop yield in Estonia. Meteorologically possible yield (MPY), calculated by the model POMOD, is used to characterise potato crop yield. Data of three meteorological stations and the biological parameters of two potato sorts were applied to the model, and 73 different classifications of atmospheric circulation from catalogue 1.2 of COST 733, domain 05 are used to qualify circulation conditions. Correlation analysis showed that there is at least one circulation type in each of the classifications with at least one statistically significant (99%) correlation with potato crop yield, whether in Kuressaare, Tallinn or Tartu. However, no classifications with circulation types correlating with MPY in all three stations at the same time were revealed. Circulation types inducing a decrease in the potato crop yield are more clearly represented. Clear differences occurred between the observed geographical locations as well as between the seasons: derived from the number of significant circulation types, summer and Kuressaare stand out. Of potato varieties, late 'Anti' is more influenced by circulation. Analysis of MSLP maps of circulation types revealed that the seaside stations (Tallinn, Kuressaare) suffer from negative effects of anti-cyclonic conditions (drought), while Tartu suffers from the cyclonic activity (excessive water). © 2011 ISB.


Saue T.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture | Saue T.,University of Tartu | Kadaja J.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture
Boreal Environment Research | Year: 2011

The main objective of this research is to generate and analyse values of meteorologically possible yields (MPY, maximum yield achievable under given meteorological conditions) of potato for the middle and the end of the 21st century, at three Estonian locations. An early and a late potato varieties are analysed as examples. Climate change is evaluated under four different emission scenarios by 18 different GCMs; resultant changes are introduced into a dynamical potato growth model POMOD. The climate-driven changes without considering the effect of CO2 concentration change are determined. A negative impact of climate warming on early potato growth in Estonia is confirmed. Moderate climate change scenarios will have a positive influence on growth of the late potato variety, whereas stronger changes will cause the decline of agrometeorological resources. A more positive or less negative effect of climate change is detected for northern Estonia. © 2011.


Runno-Paurson E.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Runno-Paurson E.,Jogeva Plant Breeding Institute | Remmel T.,University of Tartu | Ojarand A.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

The characteristics of populations of Phytophthora infestans from organic farms, small conventional farms and large conventional farms were determined from isolates collected in northern Estonia in 2004 and 2005. For the population as a whole 41% were A2; all virulence factors to the 11 R genes from Solanum demissum were found; and more than 70% had high or intermediate resistance to metalaxyl. Isolates from organic farms tended to have more complex pathotypes than isolates from either large or small conventional farms, but there was a higher proportion of metalaxyl resistant isolates from large conventional farms than from small conventional farms or from organic farms. © 2010 KNPV.


Nugis E.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Nugis E.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture | Kuht J.,Estonian University of Life Sciences
Agronomy Research | Year: 2012

In Estonia the effect of compaction on soil/subsoil is studied in two leading organizations: Estonian University of Life Sciences (EMU) and Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture (ERIA). An attempt has been made to methodologically harmonize them with methodological instructions given in the ISTRO (International Soil Tillage Research Organization). A novel methodology for complex assessment of the effect and influence of mobile technical means (MTM) on soil has been offered. The soil has been examined as a polydisperse body where certain changes occur in compactibility, vulnerability, achieving physical mellowness and in textural composition. The relevant assessment criteria were worked out and approved in three separately carried out tests. As it appears from the results, such an approach allows us to do the necessary generalizations in assessment of the effect of MTM on soil, to adequately value the respective factors (extent, character, sign systems), i.e. issue from soil physical properties and pedosemiotics characteristics at the same time, while also not excluding the energy consumption.


Kuht J.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Reintam E.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Edesi L.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture | Nugis E.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture
Agronomy Research | Year: 2012

In 1997, 1998 and 1999 field experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of soil compaction on the soil properties and on the composition of phytocoenosis in barley fields. The field trials were completed on sandy clay Haplic Stagnosol (by WRB 2006) which is quite characteristic for Estonia, and sensitive to compaction. The results of the investigations at Eerika (near Tartu, Estonia) demonstrated a strongly negative effect of subsoil compaction on soil characteristics and were associated with the number of compaction events carried out. Furthermore, the amount of aggregates of the 0.25-7 mm decreased by 14.4%. The penetration resistance in subsoil was 1.7-2.6 times higher compared with the non-compacted area. The results indicated that adaptability of weeds on the soil degraded by excessive compaction was remarkably strong, thus increasing their competitiveness in association with barley, especially under conditions unfavourable to the plants.


Runno-Paurson E.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Runno-Paurson E.,Jogeva Plant Breeding Institute | Kotkas K.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture | Tahtjarv T.,Jogeva Plant Breeding Institute | And 2 more authors.
Zemdirbyste | Year: 2011

Phytophthora infestans is one of the most serious and economically important pathogens in potato fields worldwide, including Estonia. Under favourable conditions, the pathogen causes a destructive foliar blight and can also have a destructive effect on tubers. Phytophthora infestans was isolated from potato leaves from the northern region of Estonia during 2001-2008. In the six years 2003-2008, the proportions of A1 and A2 mating types among 180 isolates tested were 57% and 43%, respectively. We found a consistent directional change in the proportions of A2 mating types which increased during the study years. Both mating types were found in almost all sampled fields in the study area. The results indicated that the ratio of P. infestans A1:A2 mating types is suitable for sexual reproduction. Race diversity calculated by the normalized Shannon diversity index showed a very low value (0.27), still considerable differences between years were found.


Adamonyte G.,Lithuanian Academy of Sciences | Kastanje V.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture
Folia Cryptogamica Estonica | Year: 2011

Forty three species and infraspecific taxa of myxomycetes were recorded in different ecotopes of the Saaremaa island, the West Estonian Archipelago, during the 17 th Symposium of the Baltic Mycologists and Lichenologists in 2008. Among them, thirteen species were found for the first time in Estonia: Arcyria abietina, Comatricha ellae, Craterium leucocephalum, Diderma effusum, Didymium nigripes, Echinostelium apitectum, Licea minima, L. operculata, Physarum robustum, P. viride, Stemonaria irregularis, Stemonitopsis amoena, and Trichia munda.


Tamm K.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture | Vettik R.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture
Agronomy Research | Year: 2011

In the market of agricultural machines the supply of slurry tankers is diverse. It is a complex task to consider all parameters intuitively while selecting a tanker suitable for a farm. The capacity of a slurry tanker is affected by different variables. According to previous studies, the most significant influence is the tank volume. In the present version of selection model of a tanker, we composed a pattern to determine the minimum volume for a slurry tanker. The aim of the paper is to introduce the calculation pattern and to give an overview of the model. The results of model experiments and sensitivity of key factors are discussed. Calculations show that, the larger is slurry amount and the shorter is the time span within which it should be distributed, the greater must be tank volume. In the case of 20 days, 3m 3 of tank volume is satisfying the needs of a farm which has 2,000m 3 slurry; the transportation distance is 1km and uses a 12m spreader with application rate of 40m 3 ha -1. If slurry amount is 5,000m 3, the minimum volume should be 11m 3 in the same conditions. Sensitivity analysis shows that in the frames of reference situation the average difference of tank volume is 1) 7.5m 3 per 1,000m 3 slurry amount, 2) -0.1m 3 per 1m 3 h -1 unloading capacity, and 3) 4.4m 3 per 1km distance. The study is continued to improve the selection model to define the optimum value of tanker volume regarding economical and technical constraints.


Jarvan M.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture | Edesi L.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture | Adamson A.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2012

The effect of sulphur application on winter wheat yield and yield components on two different soils in northern Estonia and southern Estonia during 2004-2009 was investigated. Sulphur was applied with NS-fertilizer Axan or Axan Super at the rate of S 10 or 13.6 kg ha-1 accompanied with nitrogen background of N 100 kg ha-1, which effect was compared to effect of ammonium nitrate at the same rate of N. The rates of fertilizers were divided into two portions and applied at the growth stages 21-22 and 25-30. The effect of sulphur fertilization on the formation of wheat yield varied on a quite large scale depending on soil and weather conditions of trial locations. The yield components were closely related: when one component was changed, the other components sometimes compensated for grain yield.Sulphur deficiency symptoms appeared on the break-stony soil at Saku in a somewhat stronger form than on the pseudopodzolic soil at Auksi. The results of field trials conducted at Saku during the four years can be summarized as follows: the application of sulphur increased the number of ears per unit area by an average of 14.0% and the number of grains per ear by an average of 18.6%. At the same time, sulphur decreased the 1000-grain weight. As a final result, sulphur application on break-stony soil increased the wheat yield by 1.16 t ha-1 on average, i.e. by 23.0%. Sulphur application in trials conducted on pseudopodzolic soil at Auksi during years with different weather conditions in growing season proved highly effective in three of five trials. As an average of all trials in Auksi, the sulphur application increased the number of ears per unit area and the number of grains per ear by 23.9% and 7.7%, respectively. The grain yield increased under the influence of sulphur on the average of all trials conducted on pseudopodzolic soil by 1.25 t ha-1, i.e. by 22.4%. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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