Tallinn, Estonia
Tallinn, Estonia

Estonian Business School is a private, higher-education institution situated in Tallinn, Estonia. EBS offers business-related higher education in bachelor-, master- and doctoral levels. Estonian Business School also has a high school part, named EBS Gümnaasium which offers high school education from 10th to 12th grade and a Management Training Centre that offers different trainings and development programs. Wikipedia.

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Riitsalu L.,Estonian Business School
International Journal of Consumer Studies | Year: 2016

Financial literacy has been recognised as a vital life skill, but there is little evidence of the factors behind the differences in managing personal finance. Socio-economic factors and the provision of financial education do explain the variance in financial literacy in some countries, but not in all. In the PISA 2012 financial literacy test, Estonian students ranked very highly in international comparison; although only a few had received financial education at school. Compared with other countries, socio-economic factors explained the smallest proportion of variance in the test score. There was, however, a significant difference between the mean financial literacy scores of Estonian- and Russian-language communities. The aim of the article is to analyse the factors behind the differences in financial literacy when financial education is not provided. It also offers insight into how students in a similar education system in two different cultural and language frameworks achieve different financial literacy scores. Moreover, the results demonstrate how indicators, such as family background can work through different channels as opposed to the usual parental education or occupation based socio-economic indicators. The latter implies that unexplained factors remain, such as cultural, developmental and societal indicators, which most researchers pay little attention to when explaining efficient policies for improving financial literacy. Multivariate regression models show that the level of financial literacy in Estonia is correlated with gender, language of the school, the number of books at home, mathematics and reading scores. The Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition explains less than half of the gap between the two communities. The only variable significantly explaining the gap is the number of books at home. Books can be interpreted as a symbol of social status, evidence of cultural background or source of influence for broader picture and better problem solving skills. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Annus I.,Tallinn University of Technology | Koppel T.,Tallinn University of Technology | Sarv L.,Estonian Business School | Ainola L.,Tallinn University of Technology
Journal of Fluids Engineering, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2013

A uniformly accelerated laminar flow in a pipe, initially at rest, is analyzed. One-dimensional unsteady flow equations for start-up flow were derived from the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. The dynamical boundary layer in a pipe is described theoretically with the Laplace transformation method for small values of time. A mathematical model describing the development of the velocity profile for accelerating flow starting from rest up to the point of transition to turbulence is given. The theoretical results are compared with experimental findings gained in a large-scale pipeline. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique is used to deduce the development of accelerating pipe flow starting from rest. The measured values of the axial velocity component are found to be in a good agreement with the analytical values. © 2013 by ASME.

Tikk J.,Estonian Business School
Business: Theory and Practice | Year: 2010

This paper reviews the implementation of the accrual accounting in the entities of the Estonian public sector. It gives a brief overview of the historical development of governmental accounting theories and examines the introduction of theorybased accounting policy. It explains main problems and risks to face in connection with the accounting system change process and offers solutions. This study attempts to answer the following research question: how to gain full benefit from accounting information in public sector entities. As to general scientific research methods, mainly comparative analysis and description were used. This study reveals as follows. Firstly, approach to accrual accounting leads to financial information that fulfils needs for true and fair accounting data for decision making purposes. Secondly, reform of public sector financial accounting can improve the quality and the quantity of services provided to the citizens. Thirdly, the Estonian accounting regulation has recently succeeded a remarkable evolution. Fourthly, considerable problems that need to be solved have arisen from the process of the transition to the accrual basis accounting. The given study does not touch upon the development of budgeting systems for public sector entities. Hopefully, this study will contribute to further optimization of accounting systems and management tools for public sector entities in Estonia. Therefore, it will contribute to economic growth and development of business environment. Studies carried out by independent researchers on the move to accrual based accounting in public sector entities are relatively scarce. © Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, 2010.

Kitsing M.,Estonian Business School
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2014

Internet voting has become a reality in Estonia differently from all other countries in the world. In the last seven elections increasingly larger share of votes has been submitted online. This research highlights key characteristics of internet voting in Estonia and explores its rationality. It stresses particularly the importance of "bounded rationality" with emphasis on the Estonia-specific context in understanding the adoption of internet voting. The key to the adoption process has been diffusion of ID card, which is crucial for using wide range of online services offered by private and public sector organizations. Despite constantly increasing turnout, the nature of internet voting is transactional. The paper concludes by pointing out that internet voting has not made substantial contribution to democratic participation other than making voting more convenient for certain segments of society. Copyright © 2014 ACM.

Lepik K.-L.,Estonian Business School | Krigul M.,Estonian Business School | Terk E.,Tallinn University
Journal of Universal Computer Science | Year: 2010

The present article aims to describe the Living Lab's method as a method innovation in institutional activities and the problems of taking this innovation into use. Possibilities to transfer the Living Lab's method from one country, Finland, to other, Estonia, potential implementation fields and obstacles are studied. Considerations on the process of utilising the Living Lab's method in Tallinn are given. Living Lab's is a human-centric research and development approach in which new technologies are co-created, tested, and evaluated in the users' own private context. This method is coming into use in several countries among which Finland is in the forefront but is not yet in use in Tallinn, Estonia. The empirical part of the research is based on the analyses of fourteen interviews conducted among Tallinn and Helsinki city officials, representatives of technology enterprises, experts of the fields that are internationally most wide-spread Living Labs' testing grounds, using structured interviews and discussions. The article concludes by discussing possibilities to use the Living Lab's method in enhancing Helsinki-Tallinn cross-border co-operation and thus metropolitan regional integration. © J.UCS.

Salmela-Aro K.,University of Helsinki | Rantanen J.,University of Jyväskylä | Hyvonen K.,University of Jyväskylä | Tilleman K.,Estonian Business School | Feldt T.,University of Jyväskylä
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health | Year: 2011

Objectives: This study introduces a short measure for burnout (the Bergen Burnout Inventory, BBI) and examines its validity and reliability among managers in Finland and Estonia by means of confirmatory factor analysis. Burnout comprises three dimensions: (1) exhaustion at work (emotional component), (2) cynicism toward the meaning of work (cognitive component), and (3) the sense of inadequacy at work (behavioral component). Methods: A total of 742 young Finnish managers and 414 Estonian managers responded to burnout (BBI) and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) scales. Results: The results showed that the three-factor solution for burnout, compared to the one- or two-factor solutions, fitted the data best and gave the best reliability indices. The three theoretically derived dimensions of burnout were closely related but separate constructs. The BBI also had high item scale reliabilities among the managers in both countries. Finally, the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model and the three dimensions of burnout had similar associations among Finnish and Estonian managers providing evidence for the concurrent validity of the BBI. That is, high effort was related to high exhaustion and high cynicism. High reward was related to low exhaustion, but especially to low cynicism and low inadequacy. High overcommitment was related particularly to high exhaustion, but also to high cynicism and high inadequacy. Conclusions: The BBI can be used for the measurement of burnout in both research and occupational health contexts. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Alas R.,Estonian Business School | Gao J.,Estonian Business School | Carneiro J.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro
Engineering Economics | Year: 2010

Ethical issues typically arise because of conflicts between individuals' personal moral philosophies and values and the values and attitudes of the organizations in which they work and the society in which they live. The research question is: Are there connections between national culture and ethics? This paper adopts a deontological approach by testing the absoluteness of "right" and "wrong" and the importance of the No-harm Principle (cf. Pojman, 2002). Three countries were selected to conduct the investigation - Brazil, China, and Estonia. These three countries are from three different cultural clusters. A scale was developed to measure Ethical Relativism and No-harm Principle. The national cultural connection was stronger with Ethical Relativism, where six cultural practices and two cultural values seem to be related to how people think about what is right and wrong. Concerning the No-Harm Principle one should not psychologically or physically harm another person, nor perform an action which might threaten the dignity and welfare of another individual, only In-Group Collectivism as a value was (negatively) connected with the No-Harm Principle. As a managerial suggestion, organizations ought to pay attention to the following cultural dimensions when doing business in different cultures could be useful: In-Group Collectivism, Institutional Collectivism, Humane Orientation, Performance Orientation, Future Orientation and Gender Egalitarianism.

Buhanist P.,Estonian Business School
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy | Year: 2015

This paper seeks to explain the persistence of a business model that was instrumental in creating pan-European natural gas markets but refused to retire when the markets outgrew it. Long-term oil-indexed agreements enabled the emergence of international gas markets in Europe since the early 1960s and they still govern gas imports to the European Union. Yet, they failed to evolve with the changing business environment, resulting in the strategic costs for the companies. A politicized topic, research has thus far focused on national and regional levels, largely ignoring company level processes. This article contributes to the understanding of European gas markets by introducing a company level behavioral explanation of the endurance of an institutionalized but seemingly outdated business model. Path dependence is found to be a major contributing factor of the behavior of agents. Business leaders and governments alike will benefit from learning to identify and avoid path dependent behavior that leads to potentially sub-optimal outcomes. © 2015, Econjournals. All rights reserved.

Alas R.,Estonian Business School | Edwards V.,Buckinghamshire New University
Engineering Economics | Year: 2011

The differences in attitudes and values in countries with similar cultural roots but different institutional backgrounds were found in a study conducted in three European countries (Alas and Edwards 2007). The differences in work-related attitudes in the three Finno-Ugrian countries, Estonia, Finland and Hungary, are influenced by the respective countries' historical legacy, in particular differences in levels of institutional development (ibid). In order to test this result and to advise companies doing business on different continents, the authors enlarged the sample by adding countries from Europe and Asia. Countries on both continents have been divided into two groups according to their institutional backgrounds. Europe has been divided into two parts according to recent history and developmental level: East European and West European countries. The former group has undergone a transition from planned command economy over the last 20 years, the latter has a long tradition of capitalism and the market economy. Similarly, in Asia Japan, South Korea and Hong Kong have well established market systems, while China has been developing a socialist market economy since the late 1970s (Warner et al., 2005). Managers in Eastern Europe and China have had similar challenges: to focus on organizational efficiency and to change competitive strategies (Alas et al 2009b; Wang, 2007). The main research question is: are there differences in work-related attitudes between employees from countries with different institutional background on two continents and, if so, what are the reasons for these differences? The paper begins with hypotheses development. This is followed by description of the empirical study and finally data collected from empirical studies in four regions (China; Japan, South Korea and Hong Kong ['Asia']; formerly socialist Eastern Europe; and Western Europe) are analysed and the results discussed. An institutional model of differences in attitudes toward society, organisations and work has been developed. The findings indicate both similarities and differences between work-related attitudes in Asia and Europe. Even between East and West European respondents who share a similar culture, there were in certain instances substantial differences in attitudes. The same is true in Asia: attitudes of Chinese respondents differ from attitudes of the three other Asian countries in the survey. At the same time the findings indicate that the institutional framework influences work-related attitudes, as evidenced by the similarities in some of the responses from Chinese and East European respondents. The main conclusion from this study is that the differences in attitudes held toward society, organizations and work by people in Asia and Europe are influenced both by institutional context and cultural background. Both factors, and combinations of both factors, should be considered by owners and managers of multinational corporations. These results may help managers of multinational companies to achieve better work-related attitudes among employees working in plants on different continents.

Ubius U.,Estonian Business School | Alas R.,Estonian Business School
Engineering Economics | Year: 2012

Research was supported by ETF grant 7537 The purpose of this paper is to investigate connections between innovation climate and corporate social responsibility (CSR). The survey was conducted in Estonian, Chinese, Japanese, Russian, Slovakian, Czech, Finnish and German electric-electronic machine, retail store and machine-building enterprises.The Schumpeterian definition (Shumpeter, 1934) of innovation states that the commercialization of all new combinations is based upon the application of any of the following: new materials and components, the introduction of new processes, the opening of new markets, and the introduction of new organizational forms. According to Janszen (2000) when a change in technology is involved it is termed an "invention" and when the business world is involved, it is an "innovation" (Janszen, 2000). Different organizations have different definitions about CSR, but there is similar ground between them (Übius & Alas 2009; Tafel-Viia & Alas 2009). Today leaders face a challenge in order to apply societal ethical standards to responsible business practice (Morimoto et al., 2005) during changes triggered by changing environment (Alas 2008; Alas et al 2009a; Alas et al 2009b; Alas et al 2010; Sepper & Alas 2008) and taking place in different cultures (Alas & Edwards 2011; Alas et al 2011). Corporate social responsibility is regarded as a crucially important issue in management nowadays (Cornelius et al., 2008; Humphreys & Brown, 2008).The previous research study’s findings of no significant differences by the entrepreneur’s gender in venture innovation/risk situation, in strategies employed, and in satisfaction with performance support other recent research studies (Sonfield & Lussier, 1997). Recent evidences showed that the relationship between organizational commitment and discretionary measures of corporate social orientation is stronger for women than for men (Peterson, 2004) and that corporate charitable behavior, which is considered to be discretionary (Carroll, 1979) is viewed more favorably by women than men (Roberts, 1993).Linear regression analysis was done in order to analyze connections between innovation climate and corporate social responsibility. Data about three different age groups, two different genders and two different education levels were compared by means of the T-test and ANOVA-test. The total number of respondents was 6094.The results of an empirical study show that corporate social responsibility predicts innovation climate but it depends on the employees` gender, age and education level. From this study corporate social responsibility predicts innovation climate among younger and middle age groups. One facet of corporate social responsibility – the firm performance concerning social issues predicts innovation climate among older age group. Corporate social responsibility predicts also innovation climate among men. Corporate social responsibility predicts innovation climate among respondents with high level of education. One facet of corporate social responsibility - the firm performance concerning social issues predicts innovation climate among respondents with low level of education.Both facets of corporate social responsibility and innovation climate were rated higher among women and lower among men. Both facets of corporate social responsibility and innovation climate were rated higher among younger age group and lower among middle and older age group. There weren’t big differences among respondents with low and high levels of education according to the two facets of corporate social responsibility - the firm performance concerning social issues and the firm respects the interests of agents and innovation climate. © 2012, Kauno Technologijos Universitetas. All rights reserved.

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