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Paysandú, Uruguay

Gutierrez L.,Estadistica y Computacion
Systematic and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2013

Aquifers are among the main freshwater sources. The Raigón aquifer is susceptible to contamination, mainly by nitrate and pesticides, such as atrazine, due to increasing agricultural activities in the area. The capacity of indigenous bacteria to attenuate nitrate contamination in different wells of this aquifer was assessed by measuring denitrification rates with either acetate plus succinate or nitrate amendments. Denitrification activity in nitrate-amended assays was significantly higher than in unamended assays, particularly in groundwater from wells where nitrate concentration was 33.5mgL-1 or lower. Furthermore, groundwater denitrifiers capable of using acetate or succinate as electron donors were isolated, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and evaluated for functional denitrification genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ). Phylogenetic affiliation of 54 isolates showed that all members belonged to nine different genera within the Proteobacteria (Bosea, Ochrobactrum, Azospira, Zoogloea, Acidovorax, Achromobacter, Vogesella, Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). In addition, isolate AR28 that clustered separately from validly described species could potentially belong to a new genus. The majority of the isolates were related to species belonging to previously reported denitrifying genera. However, the phylogeny of the nirS and nosZ genes revealed new sequences of these functional genes. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation and sequencing of the nirS gene from the genus Vogesella, as well as the nosZ gene from the genera Acidovorax and Zoogloea. The results indicated that indigenous bacteria in the Raigón aquifer had the capacity to overcome high nitrate contamination and exhibited functional gene diversity. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. Source


Adrien M.L.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Adrien M.L.,Federal University of Pelotas | Mattiauda D.A.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Artegoitia V.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | And 4 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different body condition score (BCS) at 30 days before calving (30 days) induced by a differential nutritional management from 100 days until 30 days on productive parameters, the interval to first ovulation and blood parameters in primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions until 60 days post partum. The experimental arrangement was a randomized complete block design, where cows were blocked according to BW and expected calving date and then randomly assigned to different nutritional treatments from 100 to 30 days relative to calving to induce different BCS. As the assignment of cows to treatments was random, cows had to lose, maintain or gain BCS; thus, different planes of nutrition were offered with approximately 7, 14 or 20 kg dry matter per day. The BCS score was assessed every 15 days and animals were reassigned in order to achieve the desired BCS at 30 days. Only animals that responded to nutritional treatment were considered and this was defined as follows: primiparous and multiparous high cows (PH and MH) had to gain 0.5 points of BCS, primiparous low (PL) had to lose 0.5 points of BCS and multiparous low (ML) had to maintain BCS at least in two subsequent observations from 100 to 30 days. From 30 days to calving, primiparous and multiparous cows (P and M cows) were managed separately and cows were offered a diet once a day. From calving to 60 days post partum, cows of different groups grazed in separate plots a second year pasture. Cows were also supplemented individually with whole-plant maize silage and commercial concentrate. Cows had similar BCS at 100 days and differed after the nutritional treatment; however, all groups presented similar BCS at 21 days post partum. The daily milk production and milk yield at 60 days post partum was higher in M than P cows. The percentage of milk fat was higher in PH cows compared with PL cows. Concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were affected by the BCS at 30 days within parity, and in PH cows the concentration of NEFA was higher than in PL cows. The concentrations of total protein were higher in M cows. A lower probability of cycling was found in PL than in PH cows (P < 0.05) and in ML than in MH cows (P < 0.05). Treatment affected various endocrine/metabolic profiles according to parity, suggesting that the metabolic reserves signal the productive/reproductive axis so as to induce a differential nutrient partitioning in adult v. first-calving cows. © 2011 The Animal Consortium. Source


Beltran C.,Estadistica y Computacion | Shub M.,University of Buenos Aires | Shub M.,The New School
Foundations of Computational Mathematics | Year: 2012

We study the geometry and topology of the rank stratification for polynomial system solving, i. e., the set of pairs (system, solution) such that the derivative of the system at the solution has a given rank. Our approach is to study the gradient flow of the Frobenius condition number defined on each stratum. © 2012 SFoCM. Source


Duarte F.,Direccion General de Servicios Agricolas | Borges A.,Estadistica y Computacion
Neotropical Entomology | Year: 2015

The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), is the most serious pest in peach, and several insecticide applications are required to reduce crop damage to acceptable levels. Geostatistics and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are employed to measure the range of spatial correlation of G. molesta in order to define the optimum sampling distance for performing spatial analysis and to determine the current distribution of the pest in peach orchards of southern Uruguay. From 2007 to 2010, 135 pheromone traps per season were installed and georeferenced in peach orchards distributed over 50,000 ha. Male adult captures were recorded weekly from September to April. Structural analysis of the captures was performed, yielding 14 semivariograms for the accumulated captures analyzed by generation and growing season. Two sets of maps were constructed to describe the pest distribution. Nine significant models were obtained in the 14 evaluated periods. The range estimated for the correlation was from 908 to 6884 m. Three hot spots of high population level and some areas with comparatively low populations were constant over the 3-year period, while there is a greater variation in the size of the population in different generations and years in other areas. © 2015, Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil. Source


Quero G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Gutierrez L.,Estadistica y Computacion | Lascano R.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Lascano R.,National University of Cordoba | And 3 more authors.
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2014

The genus Lotus includes a group of forage legume species including genotypes of agronomic interest and model species. In this work, an experimental hydroponic growth system allowed the discrimination of growth responses to ionic-osmotic stress in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from L. japonicus×L. burttii and the identification of the associated quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The analyses led to the identification of eight QTLs: three for shoot growth localised on chromosome 3, 5 and 6; one for root growth on chromosome 1; three for total growth on chromosome 1, 4 and 5; and one associated with shoot/root ratio on chromosome 3. An interaction of QTL×stress condition was established and the effect of the environment quantified. In summary, it was established that the allele from L. burttii explained most responses to osmotic stress, while the alleles of L. japonicus explained the responses related to ionic stress conditions. Of 49 markers linked to all QTLs identified, 41 expressed superiority of the L. burttii parental allele in the osmotic stress condition, but when an iso-osmotic concentration of NaCl was applied, L. burttii lost superiority in 21 of these markers. This shows the superiority of the L. japonicus parental allele in ionic stress conditions. This study is the first report in which a RIL population of lotus is analysed with the aim of providing molecular markers associated with plant responses to ionic or osmotic stress. © 2014 CSIRO. Source

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