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Medina M.G.,University of Los Andes, Venezuela | Garcia D.E.,University of Los Andes, Venezuela | Moratinos P.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agricolas Inia | Clavero T.,University of Zulia | Iglesias J.M.,Estacion Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes Indio Hatuey
Zootecnia Tropical | Year: 2011

An experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of the year, the season, the modality association, the grazing frequency, the pruning strategy and the soil depth in the behavior of the edaphic macrofauna in a grass area (P) and associated systems with Morus alba (M) and Leucaena leucocephala (L) in Trujillo state, V enezuela using a randomized blocks design with factorial arrangement 4×3×3×2×2 and 3 replicates. A characterization from the macrofauna to the beginning of the establishment and different periods was studied. Was selected it at random 3 sampling point in each treatment for association modality (P; M+P; M+L+P; L+P) and calicates of 30×30×30 cm was dug in the floor. The samples were separated in different depths 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. The macrofauna samples were separate, counted and classified until family level. No significant interaction was observed. However, effect of all factors studied was obtained, except of the pruning strategy, among individues/m2 density. Significant differences among the second (57.8) and third (66.5) year of exploitation, compared with the establishment (15.9) and in the first year of exploitation (20.9) were observed. During the rainy season (44.78) the biggest quantity in individuals was observed by area unit, as well as in the tree systems (M+P: 31.31; M+L+P: 36,95), with the most spaced grazing frequency (39,40) and in the first 10 cm of depth (56.00; P<0.01). Bigger qualitative wealth in terms of species in the associate systems was observed. The mulberry and leucaena presence favored the colonization in the associate systems and the biggest phylum, classes, orders and families of edaphic organisms were counted.

Vega A.M.,Empresa de Genetica y Cria Manuel Fajardo | Herrera R.S.,Institute Ciencia Animal | Rodriguez G.A.,Hospital Docente General Milanes | Sanchez S.,Empresa de Genetica y Cria Manuel Fajardo | And 2 more authors.
Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2014

The performance of the edaphic macrofauna was evaluated in a Leucaena leucocephala-Cynodon nlemfuensis silvopastoral system at the Cattle Breeding Enterprise "Manuel Fajardo", located in the municipality of Jiguaní, Granma province. An area of 6.71 ha distributed in six paddocks was used in a completely randomized design with six replications in a carbonated brown soil. The study was conducted in the litter strata, 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm depth. The taxonomical composition, density and biomass of the macrofauna organisms were determined. The taxonomic composition consisted of 216 individuals, represented by three types, five classes and seven orders. From them, the most represented was the class Insecta. In the density of individuals there were differences (P < 0.05), from the litter of 8.08 individuals/m2 to 1.83 individuals/m2, at the 20-30 cm depth. For the biomass, there were differences (P < 0.05) and varied from 0.16 to 0.03 g/m2 for the litter at 20-30 cm, respectively. Also, in total density there was growth, following tree incorporation (6.07 ind./m2) and after total biomass grew by 0.18 g/m2, thus proportional abundance increased with the appearance of Hymenopterous, Diplopodous and Lepidopterous. The silvopastoral system improved the macrofauna with advantages for their exploitation as time went by.

Medina M.G.,University of Los Andes, Venezuela | Garcia D.E.,University of Los Andes, Venezuela | Moratinos P.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agricolas Estado Trujillo | Iglesias J.M.,Estacion Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes Indio Hatuey | Clavero T.,University of Zulia
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia | Year: 2012

An experiment was carried in order to evaluating the agronomic potential of Mulberry (Morus alba) in terms of height, trunk and branch diameter, longitude and branch number, surrounds tree diameter, survival, plagues affectation and illnesses symptoms using a randomized blocks design with divided parcels and factorial arrangement: three fertilization level (0, 132 and 264 g N.plant.year -1) x three grazing frequency (60, 90 and 120 days) x two association modality (mulberrygrasses and mulberry-leucena-grasses) x two pruning strategies (with pruning and without pruning), for measures repeated in the time and four replicates by subparcels. No significant interactions among evaluated factors were observed. The effect of the year in the height and the trunk and branches diameter was only observed (P<0.01). The survival, although stayed during the whole stage above 90%, it diminished significantly from 97.12 to 94.20% starting from the second year of grazing (P<0.05). A significant effect of the season in the height and the longitude of the branches in the rainy period was observed. In the multi associated system Mulberry exhibited a significant bigger height (3.80 m), trunk diameter (5.41 cm), branches number (27) and survival (96 %). In the system of simple association bigger affectation by plagues and illnesses was observed (P<0.05). In the pruned plants a significant decrease of the height, the trunk diameter, the surrounds tree diameter and number of branches was obtained (P<0.01). The fertilization affected the height and the diameter of the trunk positively with the biggest applied dose (P<0.05). Considering the morpho structural evaluated variable the Mulberry could be used as browsing-grazing tree associated with Leucena and managed with organic fertilization (264 g of N.plant.year-1) and grazed every 90 or 120 days.

Medina M.G.,University of Los Andes, Venezuela | Garcia D.E.,University of Los Andes, Venezuela | Moratinos P.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agricolas Inia | Iglesias J.M.,Estacion Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes Indio Hatuey | Clavero T.,University of Zulia
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia | Year: 2013

Using the main components analysis (ACP) were evaluated the variability and the relationship of variables related with the behavior of mulberry (Morus alba), in different association modalities with leucena (Leucaena leucocephala) and grasses during three years of exploitation in Trujillo state, Venezuela. 27 associated variables to the morpho structural behavior, the biomass availability and the chemical composition were evaluated. In the ACP corresponding to the morpho structure and the availability variables three components were formed, with 80.435% of the total variability extracted. The BT, BC and leaves availability, the number of branches, the survival and the symptoms of illnesses; all positively related to each other, explained the variance better. In the ACP associated with the chemical composition, five components were formed and 86.763% of the experimental variance was extracted. The contents of crude protein, true protein, bound protein to the fibrous fraction and the fibrous fraction (FDN), all related positively to each other, excepting the FDN, explained the numeric fluctuations better. To evaluate the behavior of the mulberry as grazing plant in a silvopastoral context could be measured the number of branches, the availability of biomass, the survival and the appearance of illnesses. From the chemical point of view should only be considered some variables associated with the protein profile or the FDN. However, the majority secondary metabolites did not exhibit relevance, excepting to the saponins content, to characterize the species under silvopastoral conditions.

Diaz Solares M.,Estacion Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes Indio Hatuey' | Cazana Martinez Y.,University of Matanzas | Perez Hernandez Y.,University of Matanzas | Valdivia Avila A.,University of Matanzas | And 2 more authors.
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales | Year: 2015

Introduction: the Morus genus constitutes an important source of bioactive substances of diverse chemical nature. In addition, the use of Morus alba L., plant known as mulberry, has been rapidly diversified because it has excellent nutritional qualities. In Cuba, it stands out as forage source due to its biomass production capacity, chemical composition, high degradability, adaptability to different climate and soil conditions, perennial character when pruned and availability. Objectives: to perform the phytochemical sieving of 10 M. alba varieties and hybrids and evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous extracts in laboratory rats. Methods: the fresh leaves were collected. They were washed, disinfected, dried, and pulverized and extracted with n-hexane, ethanol and water. The extracts were filtered and the phytochemical identification tests were ran on them. A toxicity evaluation of the aqueous extracts was conducted in rats for the preliminary determination of their innocuousness. Results: the phytochemical study showed considerable quantities of triterpenes and steroids, as well as phenols and tannins in the evaluated extracts, while neither quinones nor alkaloids were detected. In the toxicity trial no important clinical symptoms, such as mortality, convulsions, or alterations of the heart or respiratory rate, appeared. Conclusions: the phytochemical analysis of the M. alba varieties and hybrids showed abundant quantities of secondary metabolites described as antioxidant agents. The toxicity study conducted showed innocuousness of the aqueous extract in rats, for which these extracts suggest the presence of pharmacological properties for the treatment of many diseases associated to the oxidative stress. © 2015, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

PubMed | National University of Costa Rica, Estacion Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes Indio Hatuey and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2017

Replacing commercial concentrate with mulberry foliage was evaluated in a feeding trial lasting 126days. Forty-eight weaned male Pelibuey lambs (20.60.80kg of BW) were randomly allocated to four groups: (1) supplementing the basal diet with mulberry at 1% (DM basis; M-1), (2) mulberry at 0.75% plus 0.1kg concentrate fresh matter basis (M-0.75), (3) mulberry at 0.50% plus 0.2kg concentrate (M-0.50) and (4) basal diet plus 0.3kg concentrate (control; M-0). During the first 90days, the basal diet was Pennisetum purpureum forage which was substituted by a mixture of guinea grass and sugarcane from 90days. Average daily gain (ADG, g/day), dry matter intake (DMI) and feed conversion rate (FCR; DMI/ADG) were determined. The ADG was affected (P<0.01) by the diet, with the lowest obtained in M-1 lambs (716.4g/day), whereas no differences among the other groups were observed (946.4g DM/lamb). The DMI was higher (P<0.01) in M-0 (937g DM/lamb) which concomitantly affected differences in FCR (11.9, 9.9, 10.5 and 9.7kg DMI/kg BW gain for M-1, M-0.75, M-0.50 and M-0 lambs, respectively). Final BW at slaughtering and hot or cold carcass yields were coherent with growth rate findings. Biological yield (cold carcass weight/empty BW) was higher (P<0.01) in M-0.75. Without compromising animal productivity, replacing imported concentrate with mulberry reduced the feeding cost. Optimum results were obtained with M-75 diet. Further studies must be conducted for optimizing energy/protein ratios with different ingredients while increasing DMI and lamb growth rates in this tropical genotype.

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