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Marioli Nobile C.G.,Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres EEAOC | Balzarini M.,National University of Cordoba | Aguate F.M.,National University of Cordoba | Grosso N.R.,CONICET | And 4 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2016

Minerals affect the nutritional, rheological, and safety features of food products. Soybeans represent a good source of minerals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the environment on the variability of mineral elements in Argentinean soybeans in field experiments. Climatic variables (maximum, mean, and minimum air temperature; solar radiation; precipitation; and potential evapotranspiration) were recorded daily during the seed filling period; soil properties were also reported. Minerals in soybeans were determined by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. Selenium was determined by hydride generation coupled to an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Molybdenum and selenium were significantly increased (over 100%) in soybeans grown at higher soil pH with high available molybdenum. Air temperature was the climatic variable that best predicted changes in the soybean seed mineral composition. Optimum weather conditions (OWC) were defined by thresholds of the climatic variables by regression trees for desirable mineral composition. Maximum and minimum daily air temperatures during the seed filling period (30.1 and 17.1°C, respectively) were the OWC for maximizing calcium, magnesium, and manganese contents. A maximum daily air temperature over 28.0°C resulted in higher iron and cobalt levels (p < 0.001). Maximum zinc content was observed when solar radiation exceeded 18.1 MJ m−2 during seed filling (p < 0.001). Results from this study showed variation in the mineral composition of soybeans. Environmental features during the seed filling period should be considered when desired mineral composition is expected in soybean according to the end uses. © 2016 by the American Society of Agronomy 5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711 USA. All rights reserved. Source

Saska M.,Audubon Sugar Institute | Zossi B.S.,Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres EEAOC | Liu H.,Guangxi University
International Sugar Journal | Year: 2010

Colour is the most important commercial sugar attribute but in juice clarification its removal is usually not considered among primary objectives. However, based on results presented, all standard clarification procedures have the potential for significantly higher removal of colour than is realised in the industrial practice. four principal juice clarification procedures, viz. defecation by hot liming, sulfitation, carbonation and double-carbonation were tested and various aspects of colour behaviour investigated. Carbonation is not widely used in the cane sugar industry, but periodic spikes in sulfur prices, sugar quality issues and environmental concerns have stimulated efforts to consider replacing or supplementing sulfur dioxide with carbon dioxide that may be available cost-free from the fermentation plant. The colour removal, viz. the relative difference between colour of raw and clarified juice, obtained in our tests was on average 35, 47, 44 and 74% for defecation, sulfitation, single-carbonation and modified double-carbonation, respectively. Several factors affecting clarified juice colour in hot liming were tested, viz. the time and temperature during settling; bagacillo and soil content, and phosphate and protein addition. at low lime dose, below about 1 kg Cao/tonne cane (defecation, sulfitation and carbonation), significant portion of colour removal results from adsorption on the heat-coagulated cane protein, in addition to its capture by the nascent calcium phosphate precipitate. However, the adsorptive capacity of the precipitate for cane colorants appears only partially exhausted in the normal procedure. although the decolourisation effects of sulfitation and carbonation were found to be about equal, the apparently lower thermal stability of clarified juice and syrup produced by carbonation may require further study. lowering the clarifier temperature by 11°C was found to limit the juice colour increase in the clarifiers to nearly zero. This was tested in a factory trial. The internal clarifier temperature was reduced by re-routing filter juice directly to the inlet of the clarifier. Slight reduction of clarified juice colour was observed, with no negative effect on clarified juice turbidity. Source

Bencke-Malato M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Cabreira C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Wiebke-Strohm B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Bucker-Neto L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 13 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Background: Many previous studies have shown that soybean WRKY transcription factors are involved in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Phakopsora pachyrhizi is the causal agent of Asian Soybean Rust, one of the most important soybean diseases. There are evidences that WRKYs are involved in the resistance of some soybean genotypes against that fungus. The number of WRKY genes already annotated in soybean genome was underrepresented. In the present study, a genome-wide annotation of the soybean WRKY family was carried out and members involved in the response to P. pachyrhizi were identified.Results: As a result of a soybean genomic databases search, 182 WRKY-encoding genes were annotated and 33 putative pseudogenes identified. Genes involved in the response to P. pachyrhizi infection were identified using superSAGE, RNA-Seq of microdissected lesions and microarray experiments. Seventy-five genes were differentially expressed during fungal infection. The expression of eight WRKY genes was validated by RT-qPCR. The expression of these genes in a resistant genotype was earlier and/or stronger compared with a susceptible genotype in response to P. pachyrhizi infection. Soybean somatic embryos were transformed in order to overexpress or silence WRKY genes. Embryos overexpressing a WRKY gene were obtained, but they were unable to convert into plants. When infected with P. pachyrhizi, the leaves of the silenced transgenic line showed a higher number of lesions than the wild-type plants.Conclusions: The present study reports a genome-wide annotation of soybean WRKY family. The participation of some members in response to P. pachyrhizi infection was demonstrated. The results contribute to the elucidation of gene function and suggest the manipulation of WRKYs as a strategy to increase fungal resistance in soybean plants. © 2014 Bencke-Malato et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Elvira Villagran M.,Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres EEAOC | Willink E.,Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres EEAOC | Teresa Vera M.,Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres EEAOC | Teresa Vera M.,CONICET | Follett P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries. © 2012 Entomological Society of America. Source

Ostengo S.,Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres EEAOC | Cuenya M.I.,Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres EEAOC | Balzarini M.,National University of Cordoba
Journal of Crop Improvement | Year: 2015

Comparative multi-environment trials (METs) of sugarcane genotypes are frequently conducted using a randomized complete-block design (RCBD) within environments. However, blocking does not always ensure spatial variation control because of differential competition for resources among neighboring genotypes. Heterogeneity within trials may also cause between-trial heterocedasticity. This work aims to evaluate different linear mixed models (LMMs) that enable the analysis of spatial correlation and residual heterogeneity among trials for both tons of cane per hectare (TCH) and sucrose content (SC%) in three series of multi-environmental trials conducted to evaluate advanced sugarcane clones. A total of 16 sugarcane trials conducted at different sites and in different crop cycles (age) were analyzed. Individual (age×site combination) and multi-environment analyses were performed. For SC%, the classic RCBD analysis within trial was adequate. For TCH, the anisotropic autoregressive model of order 1 (AR1×AR1) was the best to compare genotype means in most trials, allowing gain in information equivalent, on average, to the addition of 1.6 replicates to the original design. In the case of multi-environment analysis, the AR1×AR1 within-trial with among-trial heteroscedasticity was the best model to compare variety means, both for TCH and SC%. The results showed how a more appropriate mixed model would help avoid commission of judgment errors in sugarcane variety recommendations. © , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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