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Bartual J.,Estacion Experimental Agraria de Elche IVIA
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

A population of several Banksia species, mainly B. ashbyi, B. integrifolia, B. praemorsa and B. prionotes propagated by seed was characterized at the Estación Experimental Agraria de Elche (IVIA), Spain. Considerable levels of morphological variability were observed, especially in relation to their adaptation to the local alkaline soils. Since selection and breeding is difficult due to the long growing cycle of this perennial shrub, it would be desirable to use molecular markers in order to estimate genetic diversity. Thirty well adapted 12-year-old individuals were selected namely, ten individuals of B. integrifolia, ten of B. prionotes, five of B. ashbyi and five of B. praemorsa respectively. In addition, eight young plants that originated from seed of a single 12-year-old B. integrifolia plant were also analyzed to evaluate the genetic diversity within the offspring of a single plant. The well known RAPD technique and another marker technique based on tubulin polymorphism (TBP) were used. Genetic diversity was detected in the individuals analyzed, even though these individuals had been previously selected for their adaptive ability to local conditions. Interestingly, edaphic conditions of the experimental site where the plants have been cultivated for 12 years were considered not very suitable for Banksia species. However, apparently enough variability seemed to be present to guarantee that genetic selection is possible.

Fernandez-Zamudio M.A.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Bartual J.,Estacion Experimental Agraria de Elche IVIA | Roca D.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Verdeguer A.,Servicio de Desarrollo Tecnologico de Moncada IVIA | Martinez P.F.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Cut flowers and pot plants are among the main dynamic, technified and socio-economic activities within the Spanish horticultural industry. Ornamental holdings concentrate along the Spanish Mediterranean coast, because of high solar radiation and mild winter conditions, that promoted greenhouse growing, resulting in high yield and quality products, suitable for satisfying the European market requirements. This work aims at analysing the present situation of the Spanish ornamental industry so as to determine the needed improvement actions in order to assure its continuity. Various statistical sources have been used, referring to both production and marketing. Technical staff and growers have been interviewed and consulted too. The technological evolution of ornamental nurseries can be known in this way. If investment in technology and equipment facilities has been the direct means in the past, for the grower to keep business profits, now adjustments of the greenhouse equipment facilities can be observed. On the other side, a lower use of some inputs is observed too, aiming at reducing costs, which could also contribute to industry sustainability. Finally, a SWOT has been built based on the observations. The main industry challenges for the future can be inferred from it, both for production and for marketing activities. One of the most important goals for the industry could be offering adaptation to a changing market demand, within a strong international competitiveness scenario. The need of actions addressed at improving promotion and appreciation of the products should also be considered. As an example of it, associating Mediterranean ornamental products as more friendly and respectful commodities with our natural environment could be an effective initiative.

Parra J.,Estacion Experimental Agraria de Elche IVIA | Aguilar A.,Estacion Experimental Agraria de Elche IVIA | Gamayo J.D.,Estacion Experimental Agraria de Elche IVIA
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

We are conducting a breeding program to introgress resistance to several viral diseases (ToMV, TSWV, and TYLCV, the most relevant in south-eastern Spain) into Spanish traditional tomato cultivars. In order to determine the possible negative effect of the introduction of TYLCV resistance, 70 F2 plants from the selfing of an advanced breeding line of the 'Muchamiel' cultivar, homozygous for the resistance alleles Tm-2a, Sw-5, and heterozygous for Ty-1 were evaluated for yield. Plants were grown under greenhouse in an autumn-winter cycle, at the Estación Experimental Agraria de Elche (IVIA), Elche (Alicante). Yields were relatively high for a traditional variety, since fruit weight was 5.2 kg/plant. The Aps-F2 marker, linked to the Ty-1 gene was used to confirm that the genotypes in the F2 population followed the expected ratios (1/4:1/2:1/4). Plants homozygous for the TYLCV resistance gene (genotype Ty-1/Ty-1) showed on average a 33% yield decrease with respect to the susceptible plants (genotype ty-1/ty-1), while the heterozygous plants (genotype Ty-1/ty-1) experimented only a 13% yield decrease. In a previous field experiment conducted under open air, in a different growing cycle (spring-winter) and in a lower yield environment (2.4 kg of fruit weight per plant), the percentages of yield reductions, 31% for the resistant homozygote and 8 for the heterozygote, were very similar to those determined in the present experiment.

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